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National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

5th International Conference on Anthrax
March 30 – April 3, 2003 • Nice, France


Agenda Participants Workshop Summary

Agenda

Sunday, March 30
 

2:00 p.m. Registration
6:00 p.m. Opening Lecture
 
Monday, March 31
 
8:30 a.m. Oral Session I: Genomics (including detection, identification, epidemiology)
2:00 p.m. Poster Sessions
4:30 p.m. Oral Session II: The Spore: Structure and Germination
 
Tuesday, April 1
 
8:30 a.m. Oral Session III: Gene Regulation and Genetic Tools
 
Wednesday, April 2
 
8:30 a.m. Oral Session IV: Toxins: Structure and Function
2:00 p.m. Oral Session V: Detection, Identification, Ecology, Epidemiology of B. a. / B. c. / B. t.
8:30 p.m. Special Session: Lessons of the 2001 Anthrax Episode
 
Thursday, April 3

8:30 a.m. Oral Session VI / A: Vaccines and Therapeutics of Anthrax
10:30 a.m. Poster Session
2:00 p.m. Oral Session VI / B: Vaccines and Therapeutics of Anthrax
4:00 p.m. Closing Remarks

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Participants

Dr. ABDELJABAR, Ouchen
Biopharma
KM2, route de Casablanca
B.P. 4569 Rabat akkari
10000 Rabat MAROC

Dr. ADAR, Yaakov
Israel Institute for Biological Research
P.O. Box 19
74100 NES-ZIONA ISRAËL

Mr. ADEREMI-ATA, Oluwole
University of UYO
No. 9 Onifade Street Oke-Itunu
234 IBADAN NIGÉRIA

Dr. AKHMEDOVA
Ministry of Health - Republic of Uzbekistan
Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology
Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
OUZBÉKISTAN

Dr. ALLALE, Olaniyi
Omolary Vet Health Care
#5. Temidire Street, Behind
Zenith Inter.Bank, IWO Road
Ibadan
200003 IBADAN NIGÉRIA

Dr. ANDRUP, Lars
National Institute of Occupational Health
Lersoe Parkalle 105
DK-2100 COPENHAGEN DANEMARK

Dr. ANLEZARK, Gillian
Centre for Applied Microbiology & Research
Porton Down
Wiltshire
SP4 0JG SALISBURY ROYAUME-UNI

Dr. ARONSON, Arthur
Purdue University
Dept. Biol. Sciences
Lily Hall
47907 W. LAFAYETTE, IN USA

Mr. AWUAH, Dennis Adu
University of Ghana
P.O. Box 10687 Accra North
GHANA
233 ACCRA FRANCE

Mr. ABIOLA, Adesile Kofoworola
MAU J. Traveling Bureau and
Enterprises Limited
5 Mercy Eneli Street, off Alhaji Masha
Surulere
23401 LAGOS NIGÉRIA

Mrs. ADEBISI, Temitope Hannah
SFA Venture Limited
SW8/404 Ajanla Street, Oke Ado
P.O Box 2123 Dugbe
234 IBADAN NIGÉRIA

Mr. AGBAMUGUM, Ovie Charles
Oyo State Government, Nigeria
Oyo State Secretariat
Agodi
NIL IBADAN NIGÉRIA

Dr. ALABA, Olayinka James
LEAB NIG LTD
N 10 Okunmade Street
Veterinary Mokola
Ibadan Oyo State NIGERIA
234 IBADAN NIGÉRIA

Dr. ALTHERR, Michael
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Mail Stop M888
B-N1
LOS ALAMOS, NM 87545 USA

Mr. ANEKWE, Chidiebele
15 Akinfe Street, Ajao Estate
Anthony Village
Lagos State, Nigeria
01234 LAGOS NIGÉRIA

Dr. ARIEL, Naomi
Israel Institute for Biological Research
P.O. Box 19
74100 NESS-ZIONA ISRAËL

Dr. ASHFORD, David
CDC
1600 Clifton Rd.
MS-C09
ATLANTA, GA 30333 USA

Dr. AYMERICH, Stéphane
INRA
CBAI
78850 THIERVAL-GRIGNON FRANCE

Dr. ADAMOVICZ, Jeffrey
USAMRIID
MCMR-UIZ-BU
1425 Porter Street
Fort Detrick
FREDERICK, MD 21702-5011 USA

Mr. ADENIJI, Olalekan
Global Civil Aviation
11, Oloruntoyin Street Papa Ajao
Same
MUSHIN NIGÉRIA

Mr. AKANBI, Tolulope Olufemi
Balotrade Nigeria Limited
37 Thomas Street, Ebute Metta West
23401 LAGOS NIGÉRIA

Mr. ALIMI, Sugun Rasheed
SFA Venture Limited
SW8/404 Ajanla Street, Oke Ado
P.O. Box 2123 Dugbe
234 IBADAN NIGÉRIA

Dr. ANDREWS, Gerard
USAMRIID
MCMR-UIZ-BU
1425 Porter Street
Fort Detrick
FREDERICK, MD 21702-5011 USA

Mr. ANI, Jude Ogbonnaya
Oyo State Government, Nigeria
Oyo State Secretariat
Agodi
NIL IBADAN NIGÉRIA

Mme. ARNTZEN, Lorraine
National Health Laboratory Service
P.O. Box 1038
2000 JOHANNESBURG AFRIQUE DU SUD

Mrs. ATKINS, Timothy
DSTL
Porton Down
Salisbury
Wiltshire
SP4 0JQ SALISBURY ROYAUME-UNI

Mr. AYOLADE, Ayodele
Mcnas Communications Venture
74,Haruna St
Ifako College Road
Ogba Lagos
234 IKEA NIGÉRIA

Dr. BABIN, Michael
Battelle Memorial Institute
505 King Avenue
JM-3
COLUMBUS, OH 43201 USA

Pr. BAILLIE, Les
University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute
Medical Biotechnology Center
725 W Lombard Street
BALTIMORE, MD 21201 USA

Pr. BARKER, Margaret
School of Life Sciences
Herlot-Watt University
EH14 4AS EDINBURGH ROYAUME-UNI

Dr. BAVYKIN, Sergei
Argonne National Laboratory
9700 South Cass Avenue
ARGONNE, IL 60439-4833 USA

Mr. BERDAL, Bjorn Peter
Institution of Microbiology
Armed Forces Medical services
P.O. Box 4302
Nydalen
0401 OSLO NORVÈGE

Dr. BEYER, Wolfgang
University of Hohenheim
Institute of Environmental and Animal Hygiene
Garbenstrasse 30
70599 STUTTGART ALLEMAGNE

M. BIFANI, Pablo
Institut Pasteur - Lille
INSERM U447
Mécanismes moléculaires de la
Pathogénie bactérienne
BP 245
59019 LILLE CEDEX FRANCE

Pr. BOEHM, Reinhard
Universitaet Hohenheim
Institute fur Umwelt/Tierhygiene
Garbenstrasse 30
D-70593 STUTTGART ALLEMAGNE

Mrs. BOTTEX-GAUTHIER, Chantal
CRSSA
24 avenue des Marquis Grésivaudan
BP 87
38702 LA TRONCHE FRANCE

Dr. BACHIR, Harif
Biopharma
KM2, route de Casablanca
B.P. 4569 Rabat akkari
10000 RABAT MAROC

Dr. BAKANIDZE, Lela
National Center for Disease Control of Georgia
9, Asatiani St.
380077 TBILISI GÉORGIE

Dr. BARNEWALL, Roy
Battelle Memorial Institute
505 King Avenue
JM-3
COLUMBUS, OH 43201 USA

Dr. BEECHER, Douglas
FBI
FBI Academy
QUANTICO, VA 22135 USA

Dr. BERGMAN, Nicholas
University of Michigan Medical School
Department of Microbiology & Immunology
5641 Med Sci II
ANN ARBOR, MI 48109-0620 USA

Pr. BHATNAGAR, Rakesh
Centre for Biotechnology
Jawaharlal Nehru University
New Mehrauli Road
110067 NEW DELHI INDE

Dr. BINDER, Patrice
CRSSA
24 avenue des Marquis Grésivaudan
BP 87
38702 LA TRONCHE FRANCE

Mr. BOHANNON, John
Contributing Writer, Science
c/o C. VACHER B16C
Rés. J. Bonnamour
90 rue André Bollier
69007 LYON FRANCE

Dr. BOURGOGNE, Agathe
University of Texas - Houston Medical School
6431 Fannin
JFB-1.768
HOUSTON, TX 77030 USA

Dr. BAERBEL, Niederwoehrmeier
Gafsipt – NBC - Protection
P.O. Box 11 42
D-29633 MUNSTER ALLEMAGNE

Dr. BAKHTEEVA, Irina
State Research Center for Applied Microbiology
Moscow Region
142279 OBLENSK RUSSIE, FÉDÉRATION DE

Dr. BARNEWALL, Sharon
Columbus State College
6694 Merwin Rd
COLUMBUS, OH 43235 USA

Mr. BELL, Matt
The Ohio State University
484 W. 12th Avenue
Rm. 376
COLUMBUS, OH 43210 USA

Ms. BETTERIDGE, Zoe
University of Bath
43 Dragon Road
Winterbourne
BS361BQ BRISTOL ROYAUME-UNI

Dr. BIAGINI, Raymond
CDC/NIOSH
4676 Columbia Parkway
CINCINNATI, OH 45226 USA

Dr. BLANK, Thomas
USAMRIID
Bacteriology Division
1425 Porter Street
Fort Detrick
FREDERICK, MD 21702-5011 USA

Dr. BOTEZAN, Calin
BioPort Corporation
3500 Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd
LANSING, MI 48906 USA

Dr. BOZUE, Joel
USAMRIID
Bacteriology Division
1425 Porter Street
Fort Detrick
FREDERICK, MD 21702 USA

Dr. BRACCI, Luisa
University of Siena
Via Fiorentina 1
53100 SIENA ITALIE

Dr. BRYS, April
Battelle Memorial Institute
505 King Avenue
COLUMBUS, OH 43201 USA

Pr. BURAVTSEVA, Nina
Stavropol Scientific Research Antiplague Institute
Sovetsksya 13-15 St.
355106 STAVROPOLRUSSIE, FÉDÉRATION DE

Mr. CANDELA, Thomas
Institut Pasteur - Paris
Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne
CNRS URA 2172
28 rue du Docteur Roux
75724 PARIS CEDEX 15 FRANCE

Dr. CARY, Robert
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Biosciences Division
Mail Stop M888
LOS ALAMOS, NM 87545 USA

Dr. CELANDRONI, Francesco
Università di Pisa
Via San Zeno 35-39
I-56127 PISA ITALIE

Dr. CHAI, Young-Gyu
Hanyang University
1271 Sadong
Dept. of Biochem. & Mol. Biol.
425-791 ANSAN CORÉE, RÉPUBLIQUE DE

Pr. CHERKASSKIY, Benyamin L.
Central Institute of Epidemiology
Novogireevskaya Street 3-A
111123 MOSCOW RUSSIE, FÉDÉRATION DE

Dr. CIUCHINI, Franco
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Viale Regina Elena 299
00161 ROME ITALIE

Ms. BRENNEMAN, Karen
The Ohio State University
484 W. 12th Avenue
Rm. 376
COLUMBUS, OH 43210 USA

Mr. BUDOWLE
USA

Mrs. BURRAGE, Moya
CAMR
Immunoassay Lab.
Porton Down
Wiltshire
SP4 0JG SALISBURY ROYAUME-UNI

Mr. CANDELON, Benjamin
INRA
Génétique Microbienne - CRJ INRA
Domaine de Vilvert
78352 JOUY EN JOSAS FRANCE

Dr. CASEY, Leslie
Elusys Therapeutics, Inc.
10 Bloomfield Ave.
PINE BROOK, NJ 07058 USA

Mr. CENDROWSKI, Stephen
University of Michigan
Dept. of Microbiology and
Immunology
1150 West Medical Center Drive
5641 MSII
ANN ARBOR, MI 48109 USA

Dr. CHAUDRY, G. Jilani
NIAID/NIH
Dir., NIAID, NIH, Bldg. 30
Room 307
MSC 4350
BETHESDA, MD 20892-4350 USA

Dr. CHITLARU, Theodor
Israel Institute for Biological Research
P.O. Box 19
74100 NESS-ZIONA ISRAËL

Dr. COHEN, Sara
Israel Institute for Biological Research
P.O. Box 19
74100 NESS-ZIONA ISRAËL

Mr. BRETTIN, Thomas
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Mail Stop M888
Bioscience Division
LOS ALAMOS, NM 87455 USA

Mr. BULL, Robert
Henry M. Jackson Foundation
503 Robert Grant Avenue
SILVER SPRING, MD 20910 USA

Dr. CABIAUX, Véronique
Université Libre de Bruxelles
SFMB Bd. du Triomphe CP 206/2
1050 BRUSSELS, BELGIQUE

Dr. CARNEY, John
DARPA/DSO
3701 N. Fairfax Drive
Suite 581
ARLINGTON, VA 22203-1714 USA

Dr. CAVALLO, Jean-Didier
CRSSA
24 avenue des Marquis Grésivaudan
BP 87
38702 LA TRONCHE FRANCE

Mr. CERVERA, Jean-Claude
DGA
Direction des systèmes de forces et de
la prospective
00457 ARMEES FRANCE

Mr. CHEN, Yahua
University of Texas - Houston Medical School
HOUSTON, TX 77030 USA

Mr. CHUTE, Michael
Naval Medical Research Center
503 Robert Grant Avenue
SILVER SPRING, MD 20910 USA

Dr. COKER, Pamala
Louisiana State University-School of
Veterinary Medicine
Skip Bertman Drive
Dept. of Pathobiological Sciences
BATON ROUGE, LA 70803 USA

Dr. COTE, Christopher
USAMRIID
1425 Porter Street
Fort Detrick
FREDERICK, MD 21702 USA

Dr. CUI, Helen
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Bioscience Division
MS M888
LOS ALAMOS, NM 87545 USA

Mme. DANE, Clare
DGA
Direction des systèmes de forces et de la prospective
00457 ARMEES FRANCE

Mrs. DEANS, Lynne
VaxGen, Inc.
1000 Marina Boulevard
Suite 200
BRISBANE, CA 94005-1841 USA

Dr. DELVECCHIO, Vito
IMBM-University of Scranton
Monroe Avenue and Ridge Row
SCRANTON, PA 18471 USA

Mr. DOGANAY, Mehmet
Erciyes University
Department of Infectious Diseases
Faculty of Medicine
38039 KAYSERI TURQUIE

Dr. DONLON, Mildred
DARPA/DSO
3701 N. Fairfax Drive
ARLINGTON, VA 22203 USA

Dr. DRIKS, Adam
Loyola University Medical Center
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
2160 S. First Avenue
MAYWOOD, IL 60153 USA

Mr. DUNNE, Robert
VDDI Pharmaceuticals
24 Woodbine Park
Blackrock
DUBLIN IRLANDE

Mme. COUTURE-TOSI, Evelyne
Institut Pasteur - Paris
28 rue du Docteur Roux
75724 PARIS CEDEX 15 FRANCE

Dr. CULLUM, Malford
Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research
310A B-Street
Bldg. 1-H
GREAT LAKES, IL 60088 USA

Mr. DANIEL, Nyarko
Lucky Internet Gateway
P.O. Box 1511 Dansoman
Accra
00233 ACCRA GHANA

Dr. DEBELL, Robert
Battelle Memorial Institute
505 King Avenue
JM-3
COLUMBUS, OH 43201 USA

Mme. DI PIETRA, Jennifer
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 N. Clifton Road
MS D01
ATLANTA, GA 30333 USA

Dr. DOGGETT, Norman
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Center for Human Genome Studies
Mail Stop M888
LOS ALAMOS, NM 87567 USA

Dr. DORIGAN, Janet
U.S. Department of State/PRS
11406 Georgetown Pike
GREAT FALLS, VA 22066 USA

Mlle. DRYSDALE, Melissa
The University of Texas –
Houston Health Science Center
6431 Fannin
JFB-1.768
HOUSTON, TX 77030 USA

Mr. DUVAL-ALEXANDRE, Fabien
Colloquium
PARIS FRANCE

Dr. CRAWFORD, Karen
List Biological Labs., Inc.
501-B Vandell Way
CAMPBELL, CA 95008 USA

Pr. DAFFONCHIO, Daniele
Università degli Studi di Milano
Via Celoria 2
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e
20133 MILANO ITALIE

Mr. DE PALMENAER, Daniel
UCL
Place Croix du Sud, 2/12
Unité de Microbiologie
B-1348 LOUVAIN-LA-NEUVE BELGIQUE

Dr. DECKER, Scott
601 4th Street, NW
WASHINGTON, DC 20535 USA

Ms. DIVIS, Dee Ann
United Press International
1510 H Street, NW
WASHINGTON, DC 20005 USA

Dr. DONLON, Jérôme
DARPA/DSO
3701 North Fairfax Drive
ARLINGTON, VA 22203-1714 USA

Mr. DRAGON, Daniel
Defence R&D Canada - Suffield
Box 4000 Station Main
T1A 8K6 MEDICINE HAT CANADA

Dr. DUESBERY, Nick
Laboratory of Developmental Cell Biology
Van Andel Research Institute
333 Bostwick Ave., NE
GRAND RAPIDS, MI 49503 USA

Mr. EASTERBROOK, Tim
DSTL
Porton Down
Salisbury
Wiltshire
SP4 0JQ SALISBURY ROYAUME-UNI

Dr. EATON, Linda
List Biological Labs., Inc.
501-B Vandell Way
CAMPBELL, CA 95008 USA

Mr. EKHETOR, Osaro
Oyo State Government, Nigeria
Oyo State Secretariat
Agodi
NIL IBADAN NIGÉRIA

Dr. EREMENKO, Evgeny
Stavropol Scientific Research Institute
Sovetskaya 13-15 St.
355106 STAVROPOL RUSSIE, FÉDÉRATION DE

Mrs. FELLOWS, Patricia
Southern Research Institute
431 Aviation Way
FREDERICK, MD 21701 USA

Mlle. FLICK-SMITH, Helen
DSTL
Porton Down
Salisbury
Wiltshire
SP4 0JQ SALISBURY ROYAUME-UNI

Dr. FRIEDLANDER, A.
USAMRIID
Bacteriology Division
1425 Porter Street
Fort Detrick
FREDERICK, MD 21702 USA

Dr. GAT, Orit
Israel Institute for Biological Research
P.O. Box 19
74100 NESS ZIONA ISRAËL

Dr. GHELARDI, Emilia
Dip. Patologia Sperimentale
Via S. Zeno 37
Dip. Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche
56127 PISA ITALIE

Dr. GOHAR, Michel
INRA
La Minière
Unité de Lutte Biologique
78285 GOYANCOURT FRANCE

Mr. EGBEDAYO, Ponmile Lewis
SFA Venture Limited
SW8/404 Ajanla Street, Oke Ado
P.O. Box 2123 Dugbe
234 IBADAN NIGÉRIA

Dr. ELHANANY, Eytan
Israel Institute for Biological Research
P.O. Box 19
74100 NESS-ZIONA ISRAËL

Mrs. FAEGRI, Karoline
University of Oslo
Center of Biotechnology
Mekanikerveien 18
N-0683 OSLO NORVÈGE

Dr. FIROVED, Aaron
NIAID/NIH
National Institutes of Health
BETHESDA, MD 20892 USA

Dr. FOUBERT, Thomas
LigoCyte Pharm., Inc.
920 Technology Blvd.
Suite C
BOZEMAN, MT 59718 USA

Dr. GALLOWAY, Darrell
Biodefense Research Directorate
Naval Medical Research Center
503 Robert Grant Avenue
SILVER SPRING, MD 20910 USA

Dr. GAUTHIER, Yves
CRSSA
24 avenue des Marquis Grésivaudan
BP 87
38702 LA TRONCHE FRANCE

Mme. GIGON, Annie
Colloquium
PARIS FRANCE

Dr. GOLDMAN, Mark
Hawaii Biotech, Inc.
99-193 Aiea Heights Drive
Suite 200
AIEA, HAWAII 96701 USA

Dr. EHLING-SCHULZ, Monika
Technische Universitaet München
Microbial Ecology Group
Dept. of Biosciences WZW
Weihenstephaner Berg 3
D-85354 MUNCHEN ALLEMAGNE

Pr. ELLAR, David
Cambridge University
Biochemistry Department
80 Tennis Court Road
CB2 1GA CAMBRIDGE ROYAUME-UNI

Dr. FASANELLA, Antonio
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sper. of Puglia and Basilicata -
Anthrax Reference Institute of Italy
Via manfredonia, 20
71100 FOGGIA ITALIE

Dr. FISHER, Morly
Israel Institute for Biological Research
P.O. Box 19
74100 NESS-ZIONA ISRAËL

Mme. FOUET, Agnès
Institut Pasteur - Paris
28 rue du Docteur Roux
75015 PARIS FRANCE

Mrs. GASKE, Kelley
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division
Building 1480 (Code B54)
DALGREN, VA 22448 USA

Dr. GEBHARDT, Joan
Naval Medical Research Center
503 Robert Grant Avenue
SILVER SPRING, MD 20910 USA

Dr. GIRI, Lallan
BioPort Corporation
Research & Development Division
3500 N. Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd.
LANSING, MI 48906 USA

Dr. GOOSSENS, Pierre L.
Institut Pasteur - Paris
Unité Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne
Unité Défense Innée et Inflammation
25 rue du Docteur Roux
75015 PARIS FRANCE

Dr. GREENBAUM, Phillip
AMC Science and Technology Center
Oast Fach 81
55247 MAINZKASTEL ALLEMAGNE

Dr. GROEN, Herman
IQ Therapeutics
Rozenburglaan 13a
9727 DL GRONINGEN PAYS-BAS

Mr. GWIMOON, Seo
Hanyang University
1271 Sadong
425791 ANSAN CORÉE, RÉPUBLIQUE DE

Dr. HALLIS, Bassam
Centre for Applied Microbiology & Research
Porton Down
Wiltshire
SP4 0JG SALISBURY ROYAUME-UNI

Ms. HANUS, Delphine
UCL
Place Croix du Sud, 2/12
Unité de Microbiologie
B-1348 LOUVAIN-LA-NEUVE BELGIQUE

Dr. HAUN, Jeffrey
ONRIFO
Edison House
223 Old Marylebone Road
NW1 5th LONDON ROYAUME-UNI

Dr. HEINE, Henry
USAMRIID
Bacteriology Division
1425 Porter Street
Fort Detrick
FREDERICK, MD 21702 USA

Mr. HENRY, Akinsulire
Cooperativie Bank Nigeria PLC
Head Quarter Dugbe Branch
234 2 IBADAN NIGÉRIA

Pr. HOCH, James A.
The Scripps Research Institute
10550 North Torrey Pines Road
MEM-116
LA JOLLA, CA 92037 USA

Dr. GREMYAKOVA, Tatiana
ISTC
Luganskaya ulitsa, 9
P.O. Box 25
115516 Moscow RUSSIE, FEDERATION
DE

Mrs. GRYAZNOVA, Elena
ISTC
Luganskaya ulitsa, 9
P.O. Box 25
115516 MOSCOW RUSSIE, FÉDÉRATION DE

Dr. HAHN, Ulrike
University of Hohenheim
Garbenstrasse 30
D-70599 STUTTGART ALLEMAGNE

Dr. HANNA, Philip
University of Michigan Medical School
Department Microbiology & Immunology
5641 Med. Sci. II
ANN ARBOR, MI 48109 USA

Dr. HARMON, Katharine
FBI
FBI Academy
QUANTICO, VA 22135 USA

Mr. HEFFERNAN, Brian
University of Michigan Medical School
1150 West Medical School Drive
6704 Medical Science Building 2
Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA

Mr. HELGASON, Erlendur
Biotechnology Centre of Oslo
P.O. Box 1125
0857 OSLO NORVEGE

Dr. HERNANDEZ, Eric
HIA Begin
Laboratoire de Biologie
94163 BEGIN FRANCE

Dr. HOFFMASTER, Alex
Centers for Disease Control
1600 Clifton Rd., MS G34
Atlanta, GA 30333 USA

Mr. GREWAL, Paul
Vital Probes, Inc.
1300 Old Plank Road
MAYFIELD, PA 18433 USA

Dr. GUTTING, Bradford
Naval Surface Warfare Center
Dahlgren Division
Building 1480 (Code B54)
DAHLGREN, VA 22448 USA

Mr. HALL, Stephen
SAGE BioVentures
Box 130474
CARLSBAD, CA 92013 USA

Dr. HANSEN, Bjarne Munk
National Environmental Research Institute
Frederiksborgvej 399
4000 ROSKILDE DANEMARK

Mme. HARRINGTON, Katherine
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Biosciences Division
Mail Stop M888
LOS ALAMOS, NM 87545 USA

Dr. HEGNA, Ida
Institute of Pharmacy
University of Oslo
P.O. Box 1068
Blindern
N-0316 OSLO NORVEGE

Dr. HENDRIKSEN, Niels Bohse
National Environmental Research Institute
Frederiksborgvej 399
4000 ROSKILDE DANEMARK

Mr. HEWLETT, Erik
University of Virginia School of Medicine
P.O. Box 800136
CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA 22908 USA

Dr. HOOVER, Timothy
USAMRIID
Bacteriology Division
1425 Porter Street
Fort Detrick
FREDERICK, MD 21702 USA

Mr. HORROCK, Nicholas
United Press International
1510 H Street, NW
WASHINGTON, DC 20005 USA

Dr. HUGH-JONES, Martin
School of Veterinary Medicine
Louisiana State University
BATON ROUGE, LA 70803 USA

Mr. IKE, Ugochukwu Victor
40b Adeniran Ajao Crescent
Ajao Estate
Anthony Village
Lagos State Nigeria
01234 LAGOS NIGÉRIA

Dr. JACKMAN, Joany
Johns Hopkins University APL
11100 Johns Hopkins Road
LAUREL, MD 20723 USA

Dr. JENSEN, Gert B.
National Institute of Occupational Health
Lersoe Parkalle 105
DK-2100 COPENHAGEN DANEMARK

Mr. JOHNSON, Matt
University of Sheffield
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
S10 2TN SHEFFIELD ROYAUME-UNI

Dr. KALNS, John
Hyperion Biotechnology
2602 Louis Baver Drive
Brooks AFB
BROOKS, TX 78235-5252 USA

Dr. KAUFMANN, Arnold
Centers for Disease Control
2155 Mountclaire Ct.
STONE MOUNTAIN, GA 30087 USA

Dr. KIM, Kijeong
CHORI-Leighton Lab
5700 Martin Luther King, Jr. Way
OAKLAND, CA 94609 USA

Dr. HOUGH, Lloyd
Battelle Memorial Institute
505 King Ave
COLUMBUS, OH 43201-2693 USA

Mrs. HUGHES, Molly
University of Virginia
School of Medicine
P.O. Box 800136
CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA 22908 USA

Dr. IMNADZE, Paata
National Center for Disease Control of Georgia
9, Asatiani St.
380077 TBILISI GÉORGIE

Dr. JACKSON, Paul
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Mail Stop M888
P.O. Box 1663
LOS ALAMOS, NM 87545 USA

Dr. JOHANSEN, Jens Efsen
National Environmental Research Institute
Frederiksborgvej 399
4000 ROSKILDE DANEMARK

Mr. JUNG, K.
USA

Dr. KAMP, Elbarte
CIDC-LELYSTAD
Edelhertweg 15
8219PH LELYSTAD NOUVELLE
CALÉDONIE

Dr. KEARNEY, John
Tumor Institute
University of Alabama at Birmingham
BIRMINGHAM, AL 35294 USA

Ms. KJEELL, Gwendolyn
FOI
Cementvägen 20
90182 UMEA SUÈDE

Dr. HUDSON, Michael
Centre for Applied Microbiology & Research
Porton Down
Wiltshire
SP4 0JG SALISBURY ROYAUME-UNI

Ms. HUYNH, Lynn
Northern Arizona University
Department of Biological Sciences
Box 5640
FLAGSTAFF, AR 86011 USA

Dr. IVINS, Bruce
USAMRIID
Bacteriology Division
1425 Porter Street
Fort Detrick
FREDERICK, MD 21702-5011 USA

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Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute
5700 Martin Luther King, Jr. Way
OAKLAND, CA 94609 USA

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Applied Biosystems
850 Lincoln Centre Drive
FOSTER CITY, CA 94404 USA

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University of California
Davis Crown Gall Group, UCD
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DAVIS, CA 95616 USA

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National Defense Medical Center
P.O. Box 90048-700
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Northern Arizona University
NAU Box 5640
FLAGSTAFF, AR 86011 USA

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Advanced Biosystems, Inc.
10900 University Boulevard, MSN 1A8
MANASSAS, VA 20110 USA

Dr. KOEHLER, Theresa
University of Texas - Houston Medical School
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
6431 Fannin St.
HOUSTON, TX 77030 USA

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Harvard Medical School
Department of Microbiology
200 Longwood Avenue
BOSTON, MA 02115 USA

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Defence Medical Research Institute, DSTA
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Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute
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Institut Pasteur - Paris
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Institut Pasteur de Paris
Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne
CNRS URA 2172
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Mr. LITTLE, Stephen
USAMRIID
Bacteriology Division
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Fort Detrick
FREDERICK, MD 21702-5011 USA

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Israel Institute for Biological Research
P.O. Box 19
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NIAID/NIH
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University of Oslo
OSLO NORVÈGE

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Christian Medical College & Hospital
Dept. of Microbiology
Tamilnadu
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Defence Medical Research Institute
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University of California, Berkeley
MCB Department
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BERKELEY, CA 94720-3202 USA

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Polytechnic University
Six Metrotech Center
BROOKLYN, NY 11201 USA

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Van Andel Research Institute
Institute of Epidemiology & Microbiology
CHINE

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UCL
Laboratory of Food and Environmental Microbiology
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Centers for Disease Control
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Ministère de l'Intérieur
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Thomas Jefferson University
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Danish Veterinary Institute
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Ohio State University
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NIAID/NIH
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Israel Institute for Biological Research
P.O. Box 19
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Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research
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ISTC
Luganskaya ulitsa, 9
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Life Sciences Division
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IGEN Europe, Inc.
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Biotechnology Centre of Oslo
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Israel Institute for Biological Research
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Veridian Engineering
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University of Toronto
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University of Padova
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Harvard Medical School
Department of Microbiology
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48 Caroloya Street
Lagos Island
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Southern Research Institute
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Centre for Applied Microbiology & Research
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ISTC
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FDA
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NIAID/NIH
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EluSys Therapeutics Inc.
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Columbia University
Mailman School of Public Health
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Institut Pasteur - Paris
Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne
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Istituto Superiore di Sanità
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Uzebek Center for Prevention & Quarantine
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Laboratorio Azul Diagnostico
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Battelle Memorial Institute
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Institut Pasteur
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Institut Pasteur - Paris
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University of Sheffield
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Department of Natural Resources
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BioPort Corporation
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Pasteur Institute/ I.N.R.A.
U. Biochimie Microbienne
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SCRAM
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Techno Pharm
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TNO Prevention and Health
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Shamelong Nigeria Enterprises
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Oyo State Government, Nigeria
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RCT&HRB
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Oyo State Government, Nigeria
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Solicitor General of Canada
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The Scripps Research Institute
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Henry M. Jackson Foundation
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Universita di Siena
Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare
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Los Alamos National Laboratory
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National Veterinary Institute
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Oyo State Government, Nigeria
Oyo State Secretariat
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Universitat Wurzburg
Lehrsthul Fur Biotechnology
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BioPort Corporation
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CRSSA
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CDC
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Cambridge University
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National Institute of Health
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Leab Nig Ltd.
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Mcnas Communications Venture
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Oyo State Government, Nigeria
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Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
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University of Scranton
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Northern Arizona University
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ONRIFO
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CBER/US Food and Drug Administration
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Centers for Disease Control
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Heriot-Watt University
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Centre d'études du Bouchet
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Biotechnology Center
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Drexel University College of Medicine
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National Institute for Biological Standards and
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CRSSA
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University of Siena
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USAMRIID
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VDDI Pharmaceuticals
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University of Oslo
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Idaho Technology
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TIGR
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Israel Institute for Biological Research
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U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation
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NIH/NIAID
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Institut Pasteur - Paris
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Advanced Biosystems, Inc.
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The Johns Hopkins University
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Bloomberg School of Public Health
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CRSSA
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TIGR
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DSTL
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USAMRIID
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Battelle Memorial Institute
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USAMRIID
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Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology
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Helsinki University
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Institut Pasteur - AFSSA
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National Institute of Health
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U.S. General Accounting Office
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List Biological Laboratories Inc.
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VaxGen
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DynPort Vaccine Co.
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USAMRIID
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Università di Pisa
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USAMRIID
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Israel Institute for Biological Research
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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
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INRA
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Battelle Memorial Institute
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University of Sheffield
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Johns Hopkins Singapore
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The Medical School
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The Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of
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University of Alabama - Birmingham
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ISTC
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University of Alabama - Birmingham
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Ben-May Institute for Cancer Research
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The University of Michigan
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State Research Center for Applied Microbiology
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DSO National Laboratories
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CRSSA
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University of Alabama - Birmingham
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Oyo State Government, Nigeria
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University of Oxford
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Institut Pasteur - Paris
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Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases
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CRSSA
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Istituto di Neuroscienze CNR and Dipartimento
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Ministère de l'Intérieur Place Beauvau
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Andrew Turner Consulting Pty. Ltd.
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Uzbek Center for Prevention and Quarantine
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Centre for Applied Microbiology & Research
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Defence Medical Research Institute
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CRSSA
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DSTL
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University of Sheffield
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Biotechnology Centre of Oslo
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National Center for Disease Control of Georgia
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GNIIgenetica
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Los Alamos National Laboratory
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AFSSA/LERPAZ
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UCL
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CIDC-Lelystad
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UCL
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Colloquium
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USAMRIID
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CHORI-Leighton Lab
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Cambridge University
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LigoCyte Pharm., Inc.
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CRSSA
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Northern Arizona University
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Battelle Memorial Institute
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CRSSA
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CHORI-Leighton Lab
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University of Michigan Medical School
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Alexion Antibody Technologies Inc.
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University of Alabama - Birmingham
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CHORI-Leighton Lab
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IGM
Université Paris XI
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Wageningen University
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Lagos State University
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Conceptual Mind Work Inc.
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Summary

As published in "SCIENCE", 18 April 2003, Vol. 300.

Anthrax
From Bioweapons Backwater to Main Attraction

Anthrax researchers, like experts on corona viruses, find themselves thrust into a new environment

NICE, FRANCE--As they strolled in from the mellow French Riviera sun to the conference desk at the chic Boscolo Plaza Hotel to collect registration packs and satchels–compliments of IGEN International Inc.--one thing was clear to the attendees of the 5th International Conference on Anthrax, which began here late last month: Anthrax research ain't what it used to be. The last time they all got together was in June 2001 at a small liberal arts college in Annapolis, Maryland. Fewer than 4 months after that 2001 meeting, the United States became the victim of the first intentional use of anthrax as a bioweapon since World War I. As a result, an enormous amount of attention and money has been focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. "It's a completely different field now," says Stephen Leppla, a molecular biologist who leads an anthrax research group at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in Bethesda, Maryland. NIAID's budget for anthrax research has ballooned from $3.2 million in 2001 to around $75 million this year.

The first fruits of increased funding were on display in Nice, with new progress on vaccines and therapies as well as the basic biology of the anthrax bacterium. In August 2001, says Paul Keirn, a veteran anthrax researcher at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, "I was being told to prepare for a 20% budget cut." Now he's more concerned about how to deploy the windfall of anthrax funding most efficiently.

Sorting out the basics

Opening the conference's first session, Tim Read of The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Rockville, Maryland, gave a sneak preview of a tool that many in his audience have eagerly awaited. TIGR finished sequencing the 5.23 million base pairs of DNA that make up the single circular chromosome of B. anthracis months ago and has made it available in a fragmented form online. Read provided an overview of the now fully assembled genome, which TIGR says will be published "soon."

With the genetic blueprint of B. anthracis known, many newcomers to this fast-growing field assume "that much of the basic work is complete,” says microbiologist Paul Jackson of Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, but "that is just not true." What is known is that B. anthracis is a naturally occurring pathogen, mainly of herbivores such as cattle and sheep. It appears to spend its life as a tiny, robust spore waiting in the soil for years--even decades--before being ingested or inhaled or entering a mammal's body through a wound. Researchers also know that the basic weapons in the anthrax armory--the toxic secreted proteins and the protein capsule that helps the bacterium evade the immune system--are encoded on two plasmids, small loops of DNA separate from the chromosome.

But there are still big gaps to be filled in the bug's molecular biology, says Theresa Koehler, a microbial geneticist at the University of Texas Medical School in Houston. Koehler presented work, done with Agathe Bourgogne in her lab using a DNA microarray developed by Scott Peterson of TIGR, revealing that the way genes regulate anthrax's attack on the body is far more complex than has been assumed. Each of the plasmids toted by B. anthracis carries regulatory genes that orchestrate the synthesis of the toxin and capsule proteins. But Koehler has demonstrated that one of these plasmid-based regulators, called atxA, controls an unexpectedly broad array of other genes on both plasmids and the chromosome.

Aside from identifying several new genes potentially important in the progress of the disease--and thus drug development--the work may call for a reassessment of both accepted data and standard lab practices. Many researchers, who are unable to meet the strict safety guidelines set for strains containing both plasmids, use a strain containing only the plasmid with atxA and the toxin genes on it. This then exempts them from the toughest safety regulations. Such strains are used with the assumption that they are just like the double-plasmid strain but without the capsule. However, Koehler's results reveal this to be too simple, and "for certain investigations employing strains with only one of the two plasmids," she says, "the physiological significance of the results could be questionable."

Another strategy for finding new genes important for pathogenesis is to identify those that differ between B. anthracis and its already sequenced relatives, the opportunistic pathogen B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, a harmless bacterium whose insect-killing Bt toxin has been engineered into many crop plants. This analysis is under way at TIGR, and Read reports that their genomes are remarkably similar, but B. anthracis appears to have 150 genes that the other two species lack. Drug researchers, intent on finding weaknesses to exploit, are now looking very closely at these genes.

A new urgency

In principle, anthrax infections are easy to treat because the bacteria can be wiped out with antibiotics--as long as they are not resistant. But if too many of the bacterial spores have germinated within the body, it is often too late: They have already begun releasing the toxic proteins that do most of the damage.

One way to save someone with an anthrax infection would be to neutralize these toxin proteins. Rather than synthesize a chemical to do the job, several groups are mass-producing human antibodies that can bind to the toxin and prevent it from making mischief.

Herman Groen, a cell biologist at IQ Therapeutics in Groningen, the Netherlands, has been working on this idea for several years. Human antibodies against anthrax are hard to come by, so Groen tacked up a sign at the 2001 anthrax meeting, promising a "free trip to Holland" for any anthrax researcher who had been vaccinated. Several took him up on the offer, and IQ harvested some of their antibody-producing cells and fused them with cancer cells. The resulting hybrids are living factories, pumping out antibodies that neutralize the toxic proteins. Groen and his colleagues have found that these antibodies protect mice against injected anthrax, and they are now testing their protection of rabbits from inhalational anthrax.

IQ isn't the only company on this track. Conspicuously absent from the conference was Human Genome Sciences (HGS), another Rockville biotech company. HGS announced on 18 March that it has not only produced human antibodies to neutralize anthrax toxin--a treatment they have named ABthrax--but has already proven their effectiveness in trials with rabbits and monkeys and plans to move soon to human trials to test for any side effects. "They seem to be ahead of everyone at the moment," admits Groen, "but it's not a zero-sum game. Having multiple antianthrax drugs on the market will reduce the chances of people getting killed by the disease, which is always a good thing."

The need for new drugs would be less urgent if everyone could simply be vaccinated to prevent infection, but B. anthracis has proved a difficult bug to immunize against. BioPort produces the only licensed anthrax vaccine, called BioThrax, a mixture of harmless proteins from the anthrax bacterium. But it must be taken several weeks before exposure and requires multiple injections over an 18-month period and annual boosters. It is also unknown whether the vaccine can protect against inhalational anthrax, the route of infection that most worries bioweapons experts.

The U.S. National Institutes of Health is funding tests of a new vaccine based on a single protein called protective antigen that is likely to be added to the nation's emergency stockpile (Science, 26 April 2002, p. 639). But some groups are pursuing more novel approaches. Darrell Galloway of the Naval Medical Research Center in Silver Spring, Maryland; told the meeting that rabbits can be immunized against inhalational anthrax with a so-called DNA vaccine, although such vaccines have had limited success in the past. Galloway made plasmids carrying DNA encoding two anthrax proteins, including a truncated form of the toxin. When this was injected into rabbits, says Galloway, their own cells took up the DNA, expressed the anthrax proteins, and presented them to the immune system. The method could prove far cheaper and more effective than the traditional method of injecting the proteins themselves.

The flip side of trying to find ways to fight the disease is the danger of doing the opposite. During the last session of the conference, Lance Price, now a microbiologist at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, described his work in Keirn's lab cultivating anthrax resistant to ciprofloxacin, the antibiotic that is a first line of defense against infection. His conclusion: "It was pretty easy, unfortunately."

The purpose of the work is to develop quick molecular tests for resistance in anthrax, says Jackson of Los Alamos. But it was still controversial to make it public at the time. Such work could; in principle, encourage terrorists to develop nastier strains of anthrax. There's no easy answer for how best to strike the balance between keeping anthrax research open (and useful to scientists) versus closed (and safe from terrorists), but "it is crucial to err on the side of an open research environment," says Keirn. "You can view this as a race between us and the terrorist in which you never win, you can just stay ahead."

--JOHN BOHANNON

John Bohannon is a former Science intern now based in Lyon, France.

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Last Reviewed: April 15, 2005
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