Other Names for this Disease
- Diaphyseal dysplasia 1, progressive
- Engelmann disease
What are the symptoms of Camurati-Engelmann disease?
What causes Camurati-Engelmann disease?
How is Camurati-Engelmann disease inherited?
How is Camurati-Engelmann disease diagnosed?
How might Camurati-Engelmann disease be treated?
Camurati-Engelmann disease is caused by a mutation in the TGFB1 gene which is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. In some instances, people have the gene mutation that causes Camurati-Engelmann disease but never develop the characteristic features of this condition. In others, features are present, but a mutation cannot be identified. These cases are referred to as Camurati-Engelmann disease type II.
Radiographically (on X-ray), the shafts of long bones show symmetric and progressive widening and malformation (diaphyseal dysplasia). Vascular (Raynaud's phenomenon) and hematological (anemia, leukopenia (low level of white blood cells), increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate) features and hepatosplenomegaly are commonly associated with the disease.
The age at which affected individuals first experience symptoms varies greatly; however, most people with this condition develop pain or weakness by adolescence.
Mutations in the TGFB1 gene cause Camurati-Engelmann disease. The TGFB1 gene provides instructions for producing a protein called transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ-1). The TGFβ-1 protein helps control the growth and division (proliferation) of cells, the process by which cells mature to carry out specific functions (differentiation), cell movement (motility), and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). The TGFβ-1 protein is found throughout the body and plays a role in development before birth, the formation of blood vessels, the regulation of muscle tissue and body fat development, wound healing, and immune system function. TGFβ-1 is particularly abundant in tissues that make up the skeleton, where it helps regulate bone growth, and in the intricate lattice that forms in the spaces between cells (the extracellular matrix).
Within cells, the TGFβ-1 protein is turned off (inactive) until it receives a chemical signal to become active. The TGFB1 gene mutations that cause Camurati-Engelmann disease result in the production of a TGFβ-1 protein that is always turned on (active). Overactive TGFβ-1 proteins lead to increased bone density and decreased body fat and muscle tissue, contributing to the signs and symptoms of Camurati-Engelmann disease.
Some individuals with Camurati-Engelmnan disease do not have identified mutations in the TGFB1 gene. In these cases, the cause of the condition is unknown.
Individuals with a family history of Camurati-Engelmann disease or symptoms associated with this condition may wish to consult with a genetics professional. Visit the Health Care Services section to learn how you can locate a genetics professional in your community.
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