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Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

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Intravenous leiomyomatosis

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What are the signs and symptoms of intravenous leiomyomatosis?

IVL most often does not cause detectable signs or symptoms. In fact, they may be found by chance during surgery. When symptoms do arise, they can include abnormal uterine bleeding, lower abdominal tenderness, ad venous thrombosis. When IVL in the uterus is exposed to venous blood that flows to the heart, it usually grows slowly and may reach the heart undetected. When IVL reaches the heart, it can result in pulmonary embolisms, cardiac failure, fainting, and in some cases, sudden death. Most people do not experience symptoms until the IVL reaches the heart.[1][2][3]
Last updated: 11/1/2013

  1. Wu CK et al.. Intravenous leiomyomatosis with intracardiac extension. Internal Medicine. 2009; 48:997-1001. Accessed 11/1/2013.
  2. Liu B, Liu C, Guan H, Li Y, Song X, Shen K, Miao Q. leiomyomatosis with inferior vena cava and heart extension. J Vasc Surg. 2009; 50(4):897-902. Accessed 11/1/2013.
  3. Fukuyama A. et al. A case of uterine leiomyoma with intravenous leiomyomatosis--Histological investigation of the pathological condition. Pathol Oncol Res. 2011; 17:171-174. Accessed 11/1/2013.