X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome
Other Names for this Disease
- Duncan disease
- EBV infection, severe, susceptibility to
- Epstein Barr virus infection, familial fatal
- Lymphoproliferative disease, X-linked
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X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is an immune system disorder that is found almost exclusively in males. Individuals with XLP have an increased risk of infection because their body cannot properly regulate the number of immune system cells (lymphocytes) and blood cells. Humans have two main types of lymphocytes, B cells and T cells, which work together to clear infections and keep the immune system in check. Individuals with XLP lack the proper regulation between B cells and T cells and are therefore unable to affectively destroy invading viruses, such as the usually harmless Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Typically, XLP patients do not display severe symptoms of a compromised immune system until they have been exposed to EBV. EBV infections, however, are common and can become life-threatening in people with XLP resulting in symptoms that include fever, hepatitis, an enlarged spleen, abnormally low numbers of antibodies, and, in some cases, lymphoma and other blood disorders. XLP is caused by mutations in the SH2D1A gene which makes a protein SAP, a key regulator in immunity, as well as the XIAP gene  XLP is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern.
Last updated: 5/6/2013
- Benowitz, Steve. NHGRI finds "off" switch that underlies rare genetic disease affecting boys. National Human Genome Research Institue. June 25, 2012; http://www.genome.gov/27549244. Accessed 6/27/2012.
- US National Library of Medicine. X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Genetics Home Reference. August, 2010; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/x-linked-lymphoproliferative-disease. Accessed 7/27/2012.
- Filipovich A. et al. Lymphoproliferative Disease, X-Linked. GeneReviews. November 10, 2011; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1406/. Accessed 7/27/2012.
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- Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
- The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library provides information on this condition for patients and caregivers.
- The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) is a federation of more than 130 nonprofit voluntary health organizations serving people with rare disorders. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
- Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. Click on the link to view this information. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
OMIM: X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome 1
OMIM: X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome 2
- Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.
- The Social Security Administration has included this condition in their Compassionate Allowances Initiative. This initiative speeds up the processing of disability claims for applicants with certain medical conditions that cause severe disability. More information about Compassionate Allowances and applying for Social Security disability is available online.