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Diseases

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

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Celiac disease

*

* Not a rare disease

Other Names for this Disease

  • Celiac sprue
  • Coeliac disease
  • Gluten intolerance
  • Gluten-induced enteropathy
  • Gluten-sensitive enteropathy
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Inheritance

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Is celiac disease inherited?

Susceptibility to developing celiac disease (CD) can be inherited, but the disease itself is not inherited. Celiac disease is a multifactorial disorder, which means that multiple genes interact with environmental factors to cause CD. The condition is due to the interaction of the genes HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 (known to be associated with CD susceptibility); non-HLA genes that are less well-understood; gliadin (a component of gluten); and other environmental factors.[1] While multifactorial disorders can run in families, they generally do not follow a specific inheritance pattern.

The risk for a relative of an affected person to develop CD is mostly based on empiric risk data. This means that the risk is assumed based on what has been reported, and the experiences of many families with affected people. However, genetic testing of the genes that cause susceptibility to CD can help people get a more personal risk assessment. For example, when the genetic status of an affected person's child is unknown, the child's overall risk for CD is 5-10% (1/10 to 1/20). However, if the child has testing of the susceptibility genes, the risk will increase or decrease depending on the results.[1]

Individuals interested in learning about specific risks for themselves or family members should speak with their health care provider or a genetics professional.
Last updated: 2/5/2014

References
  1. Cara L Snyder, Danielle O Young, Peter HR Green, and Annette K Taylor. Celiac Disease. GeneReviews. July 3, 2008; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1727/. Accessed 2/4/2014.
  2. Alessio Fasano. Genetics of Celiac Disease. In: Bruce Buehler. Medscape Reference. June 21, 2012; http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1790189-overview. Accessed 2/4/2014.


Other Names for this Disease
  • Celiac sprue
  • Coeliac disease
  • Gluten intolerance
  • Gluten-induced enteropathy
  • Gluten-sensitive enteropathy
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.