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Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

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Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness


Other Names for this Disease
  • Ballinger Wallace syndrome
  • Diabetes and deafness, maternally inherited
  • Diabetes mellitus type II with deafness
  • Diabetes-deafness syndrome, maternally transmitted
  • MIDD
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Overview


Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) is a form of diabetes that is often accompanied by hearing loss, especially of high tones. The diabetes in MIDD is characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) resulting from a shortage of the hormone insulin, which regulates the amount of sugar in the blood. MIDD is caused by mutations in the MT-TL1, MT-TK, or MT-TE gene. These genes are found in mitochondrial DNA, which is part of cellular structures called mitochondria. Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the cell nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA (known as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Because the genes involved with MIDD are found in mitochondrial DNA, this condition is inherited in a mitochondrial pattern, which is also known as maternal inheritance. Because egg cells, but not sperm cells, contribute mitochondria to the developing embryo, only females pass mitochondrial conditions to their children. Mitochondrial disorders can appear in every generation of a family and can affect both males and females, but fathers do not pass mitochondrial traits to their children.[1]
Last updated: 2/20/2014

References

  1. Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). October 2012; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/maternally-inherited-diabetes-and-deafness. Accessed 2/20/2014.
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Basic Information

  • Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.

In Depth Information

  • The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is an catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.  Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.