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Diseases

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

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Isovaleric acidemia


Other Names for this Disease

  • Isovaleric acid CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Isovaleryl CoA carboxylase deficiency
  • IVA
  • IVD deficiency
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Symptoms

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What are the signs and symptoms of isovaleric acidemia?

Health problems related to isovaleric acidemia range from very mild to life-threatening. In severe cases, the features of isovaleric acidemia become apparent within a few days after birth. The initial symptoms include poor feeding, vomiting, seizures, and lack of energy (lethargy). These symptoms sometimes progress to more serious medical problems, including seizures, coma, and possibly death. A characteristic sign of isovaleric acidemia is a distinctive odor of sweaty feet during acute illness. This odor is caused by the buildup of a compound called isovaleric acid in affected individuals.[1][2]

In other cases, the signs and symptoms of isovaleric acidemia appear during childhood and may come and go over time. Children with this condition may fail to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive) and often have delayed development. In these children, episodes of more serious health problems can be triggered by prolonged periods without food (fasting), infections, or eating an increased amount of protein-rich foods.[1]

Some people with gene mutations that cause isovaleric acidemia are asymptomatic, which means they never experience any signs or symptoms of the condition.[1]
Last updated: 5/16/2014

The Human Phenotype Ontology provides the following list of signs and symptoms for Isovaleric acidemia. If the information is available, the table below includes how often the symptom is seen in people with this condition. You can use the MedlinePlus Medical Dictionary to look up the definitions for these medical terms.

Signs and Symptoms Approximate number of patients (when available)
Aminoaciduria 90%
Cognitive impairment 90%
Seizures 50%
Cerebellar hemorrhage 5%
Autosomal recessive inheritance -
Bone marrow hypocellularity -
Coma -
Dehydration -
Hyperglycinuria -
Ketoacidosis -
Lethargy -
Leukopenia -
Metabolic acidosis -
Pancytopenia -
Thrombocytopenia -
Vomiting -

Last updated: 9/2/2014

The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) has collected information on how often a sign or symptom occurs in a condition. Much of this information comes from Orphanet, a European rare disease database. The frequency of a sign or symptom is usually listed as a rough estimate of the percentage of patients who have that feature.

The frequency may also be listed as a fraction. The first number of the fraction is how many people had the symptom, and the second number is the total number of people who were examined in one study. For example, a frequency of 25/25 means that in a study of 25 people all patients were found to have that symptom. Because these frequencies are based on a specific study, the fractions may be different if another group of patients are examined.

Sometimes, no information on frequency is available. In these cases, the sign or symptom may be rare or common.


References
  1. Isovaleric acidemia. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). 2007; http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/isovaleric-acidemia. Accessed 5/16/2014.
  2. Babys First Test Isovaleric Acidemia. Baby's First Test. http://www.babysfirsttest.org/conditions/IVA. Accessed 5/16/2014.


Other Names for this Disease
  • Isovaleric acid CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Isovaleryl CoA carboxylase deficiency
  • IVA
  • IVD deficiency
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.