Other Names for this Disease
- Benign essential tremor
- Familial essential tremor
- Hereditary essential tremor
- Presenile tremor syndrome
- Tremor, hereditary essential, 1
What causes essential tremor?
How might essential tremor be treated?
Essential tremor is a disorder of the nervous system that causes involuntary, rhythmic shaking (tremor), especially in the hands. It involves tremor without any other signs or symptoms, and is distinguished from tremor that results from other disorders or known causes, such as tremors seen with Parkinson disease or head trauma. Essential tremor (sometimes called benign essential tremor) is the most common of the more than 20 types of tremor. Essential tremor is a complex disorder. Several genes are believed to help determine an individual's risk of developing this condition. Environmental factors may also be involved. In mild cases, treatment may not be necessary. In cases where symptoms interfere with daily living, medications may help to relieve symptoms.
Some studies have found the DRD3 gene to be associated with essential tremor. The DRD3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called dopamine receptor D3, which is found in the brain. This protein responds to a chemical messenger (neurotransmitter) called dopamine to trigger signals within the nervous system, including signals involved in producing physical movement. A DRD3 variant seen in some families affected by essential tremor may cause the corresponding dopamine receptor D3 protein to respond more strongly to the neurotransmitter, possibly causing the involuntary shaking seen in this condition.
In other studies, the gene HS1BP3 has also been associated with essential tremor. The HS1BP3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called hematopoietic-specific protein 1 binding protein 3. This protein is believed to help regulate chemical signaling in the brain region involved in coordinating movements (the cerebellum) and in specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control the muscles (motor neurons). An HS1BP3 variant has been identified in some families affected by essential tremor, but it has also been found in unaffected people. It is unknown what relationship, if any, this genetic change may have to the signs and symptoms of this condition.Exactly what causes essential tremor in people without a known genetic mutation isn't clear. Environmental factors may be involved.
- Propranolol, a drug that blocks the action of stimulating substances called neurotransmitters, particularly those related to adrenaline
- Primidone, an antiseizure drug that also control the function of some neurotransmitters
These drugs can have significant side effects.
Eliminating tremor "triggers" such as caffeine and other stimulants from the diet is often recommended. Physical therapy may help to reduce tremor and improve coordination and muscle control for some patients.
More details about the management of essential tremor can be accessed through the following web links:
- Essential tremor. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). 2008; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=essentialtremor. Accessed 5/5/2013.
- NINDS Essential Tremor Information Page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). 2013; http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/essential_tremor/essential_tremor.htm. Accessed 5/5/2013.
- Essential tremor. MedlinePlus. 2011; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000762.htm. Accessed 5/5/2013.
- Essential tremor. MayoClinic.com. 2013; http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/essential-tremor/DS00367/METHOD=print&DSECTION=all. Accessed 5/5/2013.