Other Names for this Disease
- Cowden disease
- Cowden's disease
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People with Cowden syndrome also have an increased risk of developing several types of cancer, including cancers of the breast, thyroid, and the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Noncancerous breast and thyroid diseases are also common. Other signs and symptoms of Cowden syndrome can include an enlarged head (macrocephaly); a rare, noncancerous brain tumor called Lhermitte-Duclos disease; and mental retardation. 
The Human Phenotype Ontology provides the following list of signs and symptoms for Cowden syndrome. If the information is available, the table below includes how often the symptom is seen in people with this condition. You can use the MedlinePlus Medical Dictionary to look up the definitions for these medical terms.
The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) has collected information on how often a sign or symptom occurs in a condition. Much of this information comes from Orphanet, a European rare disease database. The frequency of a sign or symptom is usually listed as a rough estimate of the percentage of patients who have that feature.
The frequency may also be listed as a fraction. The first number of the fraction is how many people had the symptom, and the second number is the total number of people who were examined in one study. For example, a frequency of 25/25 means that in a study of 25 people all patients were found to have that symptom. Because these frequencies are based on a specific study, the fractions may be different if another group of patients are examined.
Sometimes, no information on frequency is available. In these cases, the sign or symptom may be rare or common.
- Cowden syndrome. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). March 2006; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=cowdensyndrome. Accessed 5/18/2011.