Other Names for this Disease
- Poland anomaly
- Poland sequence
- Poland syndactyly
- Poland's syndrome
- Unilateral defect of pectoralis muscle and syndactyly of the hand
What are the signs and symptoms of Poland syndrome?
What causes Poland syndrome?
Is Poland syndrome inherited?
How might Poland syndrome be treated?
- Absence of some of the chest muscles.
- The end of the main chest muscle, where it attaches to the breastbone, is usually missing.
- The nipple, including the darkened area around it (areola) is underdeveloped or missing; in females, this may extend to the breast and underlying tissues.
- Abnormally short and slightly webbed fingers.
- Often, the armpit (axillary) hair is missing.
- The skin in the area is underdeveloped (hypoplastic) with a thinned subcutaneous fat layer.
- The upper rib cage can be underdeveloped or missing. Sometimes the shoulder blade or bones of the arm are also involved.
- Rarely, spine or kidney problems are present.
- An interruption of the embryonic blood supply of the arteries that lie under the collarbone (subclavian arteries). This could be caused by the forward growth of the ribs reducing the flow of blood.
- A malformation of the subclavian arteries causes a reduced amount of blood delivered to the developing tissues on one side of the body.
In the few reported familial cases, researchers suggest that the condition may have stemmed from an inherited susceptibility to events such as interruption of blood flow that may predispose a person to the anomaly (i.e., make a person more likely to develop the anomaly).
- Learning About Poland Anomaly. National Human Genome Research Institute. June 28, 2010; http://www.genome.gov/14514230. Accessed 9/30/2010.
- Breast Problems. The American Pediatric Surgical Association. http://tinyurl.com/y8lhy4o. Accessed 9/30/2010.
- Greydanus DE, Matytsina L, Gains M. Breast disorders in children and adolescents. Prim Care Clin Office Pract. 2006;
- Borschel GH et al.,. Individualized implant-based reconstruction of Poland syndrome breast and soft tissue defomities. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 2007;