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Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

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Turner syndrome

Other Names for this Disease
  • 45, X Syndrome
  • Bonnevie-Ulrich syndrome
  • Chromosome X Monosomy X
  • Gonadal Dysgenesis (45,X)
  • Schereshevkii Turner Syndrome
More Names
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Your Question

How can I learn more about learning disabilities in women and girls with Turner syndrome?

Our Answer

We have identified the following information that we hope you find helpful. If you still have questions, please contact us.

How can I learn more about learning disability in women and girls with Turner syndrome?

People with Turner syndrome may have developmental delays and/or a learning disability. It has been estimated that around 10% of children with Turner syndrome have developmental delays, and up to 70% of girls and women with Turner syndrome have disabilities affecting their nonverbal perceptual motor and visuospatial skills.[1] 

You can find further details regarding nonverbal learning disability at the following link to the University of Michigan Web site:

The University of Wisconsin’s Family Village Web site lists additional resources on nonverbal learning disability at the following link:

The Turner Syndrome Society provides further information and supportive resources for individuals and families regarding learning in girls and women with Turner syndrome at the following links:

You can also contact the Turner Syndrome Society directly for further information on this topic.

Turner Syndrome Society of the United States
10960 Millridge North Drive, Suite 214A
Houston, TX 77070
Toll-Free: 800-365-9944
Phone: 832-912-6006
Fax: 832-912-6446
Web site: 

In addition, you can find comprehensive information on learning in girls and women with Turner syndrome through, a searchable database of biomedical journal articles.  Click here to view a sample search.

Below are a number of references on this topic which may be of interest to you.

Hong D, Scaletta Kent J, Kesler S. Cognitive profile of Turner syndrome. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2009;15(4):270-8.

Ross J, Roeltgen D, Zinn A. Cognition and the sex chromosomes: studies in Turner syndrome. Horm Res. 2006;65(1):47-56. Epub 2006 Jan 4.

Kesler SR. Turner syndrome. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2007. Jul;16(3):709-22.

Ross JL, Stefanatos GA, Kushner H, Zinn A, Bondy C, Roeltgen D. Persistent cognitive deficits in adult women with Turner syndrome. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):218-25.

Mazzocco MM, Singh Bhatia N, Lesniak-Karpiak K. Visuospatial skills and their association with math performance in girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome. Child Neuropsychol. 2006 Apr;12(2):87-110. 

Ross J, Zinn A, McCauley E. Neurodevelopmental and psychosocial aspects of Turner syndrome. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2000;6(2):135-41.

Temple CM, Carney RA. Intellectual functioning of children with Turner syndrome: a comparison of behavioural phenotypes. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1993 Aug;35(8):691-8.

Although not all of the articles are available for free online, most articles listed in PubMed have a summary available. To obtain the full article, contact a medical/university library or your local library for interlibrary loan. You can also order articles online through the publisher’s Web site. The National Library of Medicine (NLM) Web site has a page for locating libraries in your area that can provide direct access to these journals (print or online). The Web page also describes how you can get these articles through interlibrary loan and Loansome Doc (an NLM document-ordering service). You can access this page at the following link You can also contact the NLM toll-free at 888-346-3656 to locate libraries in your area.

The following organization provides information and resources to parents of children with a variety of disabilities. They may be able to direct you to appropriate resources, organizations, and services in your state. 

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities
P.O. Box 1492
Washington, DC 20013
Toll free/TTY: (800) 695-0285
Fax: (202) 884-8441
Web site:

Last updated: 3/7/2011

  • Descartes M, Carroll AJ. Cytogenetics. In: Kliegman. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2007;