Your browser does not support javascript:   Search for gard hereSearch for news-and-events here.

Diseases

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

Print friendly version

Chiari malformation type 2


Other Names for this Disease

  • Arnold Chiari malformation type II
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation
  • Chiari malformation type II
  • Chiari type II malformation
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.

Overview

Chiari malformation type 2 (CM type II) is a type of Chiari malformation in which both the cerebellum and brain stem tissue extend into the foramen magnum (the hole at the skull base for passing of the spinal cord).[1] This form is often accompanied by a type of spina bifida called myelomeningocele, and can also be accompanied by syringomyelia, hydrocephalus, or other abnormalities.[2] Symptoms in infants may include stridor (wheezing sound); difficulty swallowing (dysphagia); feeding difficulties; hypotonia; and weak cry.[3] Symptoms in children and/or adults may include headache; fatigue; loss of vision; tingling extremities; nausea; dysphagia; dizziness; muscle weakness; and ataxia. Adults and adolescents who previously had no symptoms may begin to have symptoms later in life.[2] The exact cause of the condition is not known but it appears to be due to a developmental failure of the brain stem and upper spine.[2] The term Arnold-Chiari malformation is technically specific to type II but may sometimes be used to describe other types of Chiari malformations.[1]
Last updated: 8/8/2011

References

  1. Chiari Malformation Fact Sheet. NINDS. June 7, 2011; http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/chiari/detail_chiari.htm. Accessed 8/8/2011.
  2. Arnold-Chiari Malformation. NORD. April 19, 2008; http://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/85/viewAbstract. Accessed 8/8/2011.
  3. Cassandra L. Kniffin. CHIARI MALFORMATION TYPE II. OMIM. August 9, 2006; http://omim.org/entry/207950. Accessed 8/8/2011.
Your Questions Answered
by the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

1 question(s) from the public on Chiari malformation type 2 have been answered. See questions and answers. You can also submit a new question.

Basic Information

In Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. Click on the link to view this information. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.  Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Chiari malformation type 2. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.
Other Names for this Disease
  • Arnold Chiari malformation type II
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation
  • Chiari malformation type II
  • Chiari type II malformation
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.