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Fetal akinesia deformation sequence

Other Names for this Disease
  • Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita with pulmonary hypoplasia
  • FADS
  • Fetal akinesia sequence
  • Pena-Shokeir syndrome, type 1
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Fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) is a condition characterized by decreased fetal movement (fetal akinesia) as well as intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), multiple joint contractures (arthrogryposis), facial anomalies, underdevelopment of the lungs (pulmonary hypoplasia) and other developmental abnormalities.[1][2] It is generally accepted that this condition is not a true diagnosis or a specific syndrome, but rather a description of a group of abnormalities resulting from fetal akinesia.[3] About 30% of affected individuals are stillborn; many liveborn infants survive only a short time due to complications of pulmonary hypoplasia.[1] FADS may be inherited in an autosomal recessive manner in some cases and may sometimes be caused by mutations in the RAPSN or DOK7 genes.[4]
Last updated: 10/3/2012


  1. Fetal akinesia deformation sequence. Orphanet. July 2005; Accessed 10/2/2012.
  2. JG Hall. Pena-Shokeir phenotype (fetal akinesia deformation sequence) revisited. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. August 2009; 85(8):677-694.
  3. F Hoellen et al. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and Pena-Shokeir phenotype: challenge of prenatal diagnosis--report of 21 cases, antenatal findings and review. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2011; 30(4):289-298.
  4. Fetal Akinesia Deformation Sequence; FADS. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). April 2010; Accessed 6/29/2011.
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  • The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is an catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.  Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Fetal akinesia deformation sequence. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.