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Sine scleroderma

Other Names for this Disease
  • Progressive systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma
  • Scleroderma, sine
  • Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma
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Sine scleroderma is a type of systemic scleroderma that is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon and the buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) on one or more internal organs but not the skin.[1][2][3] While the exact cause of sine scleroderma is unknown, it is believed to originate from an autoimmune reaction which leads to the overproduction of collagen(a tough protein which normally strengthens and supports connective tissues throughout the body).[3] When fibrosis affects internal organs, it can lead to impairment or failure of the affected organs. The most commonly affected organs are the esophagus, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Internal organ involvement may be signaled by heartburn, difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), high blood pressure (hypertension), kidney problems, shortness of breath, diarrhea, or impairment of the muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract (intestinal pseudo-obstruction).[1][3]
Last updated: 1/30/2013


  1. Systemic scleroderma. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). September 2011; Accessed 1/30/2013.
  2. Handout on Health: Scleroderma. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). August 2012; Accessed 1/30/2013.
  3. Hachulla E. Limited systemic sclerosis. Orphanet. July 2010; Accessed 1/30/2013.
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Basic Information

  • Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Sine scleroderma. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
  • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
  • The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) support research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases, the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research, and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
  • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) is a federation of more than 130 nonprofit voluntary health organizations serving people with rare disorders. Click on the link to view information on this topic.

In Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. Click on the link to view this information. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.  Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Sine scleroderma. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

Selected Full-Text Journal Articles