More information on each of these conditions is available in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) publication, Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research.
Parkinsonian symptoms may also appear in patients with other, clearly distinct neurological disorders such as Wilson disease, Huntington disease, Alzheimer disease, spinocerebellar ataxias, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Each of these disorders has specific features that help to distinguish them from Parkinson disease.
This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.
|Medical Terms||Other Names||
|5%-29% of people have these symptoms|
|Abnormal autonomic nervous system physiology||0012332|
Sensory hallucination[ more ]
|Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO|
Slowness of movements[ more ]
Progressive dementia[ more ]
Difficulty articulating speech
Swallowing difficulty[ more ]
Lack of facial expression
Mask-like facial appearance[ more ]
|Neuronal loss in
Loss of brain cells
Worsens with time
Tremor at rest
|Short stepped shuffling gait||
Short stepped shuffling walk
Trouble sleeping[ more ]
No previous family history
|Substantia nigra gliosis||0011960|
More detailed information about the cause of Parkinson disease is available through an information page developed by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Click here to view this information.
Approximately 15 percent of people with Parkinson disease have a
It is not fully understood how mutations in the LRRK2, PARK2, PARK7, PINK1, or SNCA gene cause Parkinson disease. Some mutations appear to disturb the
In some families, alterations in the GBA, SNCAIP, or UCHL1 gene appear to modify the risk of developing Parkinson disease. Researchers have identified some genetic changes that may reduce the risk of developing the disease, while other gene alterations seem to increase the risk.
The resources below provide information about treatment options for this condition. If you have questions about which treatment is right for you, talk to your healthcare professional.
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If you need medical advice, you can look for doctors or other healthcare professionals who have experience with this disease. You may find these specialists through advocacy organizations, clinical trials, or articles published in medical journals. You may also want to contact a university or tertiary medical center in your area, because these centers tend to see more complex cases and have the latest technology and treatments.
If you can’t find a specialist in your local area, try contacting national or international specialists. They may be able to refer you to someone they know through conferences or research efforts. Some specialists may be willing to consult with you or your local doctors over the phone or by email if you can't travel to them for care.
You can find more tips in our guide, How to Find a Disease Specialist. We also encourage you to explore the rest of this page to find resources that can help you find specialists.
Research helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. This section provides resources to help you learn about medical research and ways to get involved.
Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.
Living with a genetic or rare disease can impact the daily lives of patients and families. These resources can help families navigate various aspects of living with a rare disease.
These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.
Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI)
February 23, 2017
Questions sent to GARD may be posted here if the information could be helpful to others. We remove all identifying information when posting a question to protect your privacy. If you do not want your question posted, please let us know. Submit a new question
Multiple members of my family have been diagnosed with Parkinson disease, however there appears to be only one case of parent to child transmission. How does Parkinson disease run in families? See answer
The woman I would like to marry has a family history of Parkinson disease. How is this condition inherited? How is it diagnosed? Is genetic testing available? See answer
Are there any diseases that have similar symptoms to Parkinson disease? See answer