Disease at a Glance

Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome (DTDS) is a rare movement disorder that causes progressive (worsening) dystonia and parkinsonism. It usually begins in infancy ('classic DTDS') and for this reason, it is also known as 'infantile parkinsonism dystonia.' However, some people with DTDS may not develop symptoms until childhood or later (which is known as 'atypical DTDS'). The dystonia in DTDS is characterized by uncontrollable (involuntary), long-lasting muscle contractions and cramps that involve many different muscles. Dystonia causes difficulty with daily activities and impairs the ability to talk, eat, drink, pick up objects, and walk. Parkinsonism develops as the disorder progresses and is characterized by tremor (shaking), slowed movements (bradykinesia), rigidity (stiffness), and impaired balance and coordination. Additional symptoms that may be present include abnormal eye movements, reduced facial expressions, irritability, sleeping problems, digestive problems (such as reflux or constipation), and recurrent pneumonia which can be life-threatening. DTDS is caused by genetic changes in the SLC6A3 gene and inheritance is autosomal recessive.
Estimated Number of People with this Disease
In the U.S., this disease is estimated to be fewer than


What Information Does GARD Have For This Disease?

Many rare diseases have limited information. Currently GARD is able to provide the following information for this disease:

*Data may be currently unavailable to GARD at this time.
When do symptoms of this disease begin?
The most common ages for symptoms of a disease to begin is called age of onset. Age of onset can vary for different diseases and may be used by a doctor to determine the diagnosis. For some diseases, symptoms may begin in a single age range or several age ranges. For other diseases, symptoms may begin any time during a person's life.
Before Birth
Newborn Selected
Birth-4 weeks
Infant Selected
1-23 months
2-11 years
12-18 years
19-65 years
Older Adult
65+ years
The common ages for symptoms to begin in this disease are shown above by the colored icon(s).


These symptoms may be different from person to person. Some people may have more symptoms than others and symptoms can range from mild to severe. This list does not include every symptom.
This disease might cause these symptoms:
Nervous System

19 Symptoms

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Nervous System

The nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Common symptoms of problems in the nervous system include trouble moving, speaking, swallowing, breathing, or learning. Problems with memory, senses, or mood may also occur. Nervous system diseases are usually diagnosed and treated by neurologists.


Genetic Disease

Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome is a genetic disease, which means that it is caused by one or more genes not working correctly.

Disease causing variants in the following gene(s) are known to cause this disease: SLC6A3



All individuals inherit two copies of most genes. The number of copies of a gene that need to have a disease-causing variant affects the way a disease is inherited. This disease is inherited in the following pattern(s):


Last Updated: Nov. 8, 2021