Signs and symptoms of HLH include fever, enlarged
XLP1 is caused by mutations in the SH2D1A gene, and XLP2 is caused by mutations in the XIAP gene. Inheritance is
The only cure for XLP is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, which should be considered as early as possible. Treatment of XLP-related HLH may include immunosuppressive agents (such as steroids and etoposide or anti-thymocyte globulin), and rituximab when HLH is associated with EBV infection. Hypogammaglobulinemia is treated with IVIG replacement therapy, and lymphoma is treated with standard
Without treatment, many people with XLP do not survive beyond childhood, usually due to HLH. The average age of death for males has been reported as 11 years (with a range of 2-69 years) for XLP1, and 16 years (with a range of 1-52 years) for XLP2.
This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.
|Medical Terms||Other Names||
|80%-99% of people have these symptoms|
|30%-79% of people have these symptoms|
Swollen lymph nodes
Cancer of lymphatic system
Increased spleen size
|5%-29% of people have these symptoms|
Low number of red blood cells or hemoglobin
|1%-4% of people have these symptoms|
Increased plasma triglycerides
Increased serum triglycerides
Increased triglycerides[ more ]
|Increased serum ferritin||
Elevated serum ferritin
High ferritin level
Increased serum ferritin level[ more ]
|Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO|
|Decreased circulating IgG level||0004315|
Decreased immune function
|Increased circulating IgM level||0003496|
High lymphocyte count
Low blood cell count
Increased body temperature, episodic
Intermittent fever[ more ]
Recurrent sore throat
|Recurrent respiratory infections||
Frequent respiratory infections
Multiple respiratory infections
respiratory infections, recurrent
Susceptibility to respiratory infections[ more ]
|Recurrent skin infections||
Skin infections, recurrent
|Reduced natural killer
Low platelet count
Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.
Research helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. This section provides resources to help you learn about medical research and ways to get involved.
Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.
Living with a genetic or rare disease can impact the daily lives of patients and families. These resources can help families navigate various aspects of living with a rare disease.
These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.
Questions sent to GARD may be posted here if the information could be helpful to others. We remove all identifying information when posting a question to protect your privacy. If you do not want your question posted, please let us know.