Disease at a Glance

GM3 synthase deficiency is a rare neurological disorder in which the brain does not develop normally. Symptoms of the disease begin within the first weeks or months of life and include difficulty feeding, irritability, vomiting, and seizures accompanied by loss of consciousness (grand mal seizures). Vision and hearing loss, spots of darker skin color (hyperpigmentation), and intellectual and developmental delays develop as the disease progresses. GM3 synthase deficiency is a congenital disorder of glycosylation and includes both cases described as Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome and cases described as salt & pepper syndrome. GM3 synthase deficiency is caused by a genetic change in the ST3GAL5 gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The ST3GAL5 gene tells the body to make an enzyme that supports gangliosides, which are molecules that are important for brain development and function. GM3 synthase deficiency is suspected when a child presents with symptoms characteristic of the disease. Genetic testing confirms the diagnosis.
Estimated Number of People with this Disease

This section is currently in development.

What Information Does GARD Have For This Disease?

Many rare diseases have limited information. Currently GARD is able to provide the following information for this disease:

*Data may be currently unavailable to GARD at this time.
When do symptoms of this disease begin?
This section is currently in development. 


This section is currently in development. We recommend speaking with a doctor to learn more about this disease. 


This section is currently in development. 

Next Steps

Talking with the Medical Team

Good communication between the patient, family, and medical team can lead to an accurate diagnosis. In addition, health care decisions can be made together which improves the patient’s well-being and quality of life.

Describing Symptoms

Describe details about the symptoms. Because there may be many different causes for a single symptom, it is best not to make a conclusion about the diagnosis. The detailed descriptions help the medical provider determine the correct diagnosis.

To help describe a symptom:

  • Use a smartphone or a notebook to record each symptom before the appointment
  • Describe each symptom by answering the following questions:
    • When did the symptom start?
    • How often does it happen?
    • Does anything make it better or worse?
  • Tell the medical team whether any symptoms affect daily activities

Preparing for the First Visit

Working with a medical team to find a diagnosis can be a long process that will require more than one appointment. Make better health decisions by being prepared for the first visit with each member of the medical team.

    Make informed decisions about health care: 
    • Prepare a list of questions and concerns before the appointment
    • List the most important questions first, not all questions may be answered in the first visit
    • Ask questions about symptoms, possible diagnoses, tests, and treatment options
    For future appointments:
    • Discuss what was not addressed at the last visit
    • Discuss changes in the quality of life for the patient, family, and caregivers
    • Discuss health goals and other issues in the patient’s and family’s life that may affect the health care decisions
    Take notes during the appointments to help remember what was discussed.

    Last Updated: Nov. 8, 2021