Disease at a Glance

Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome (MMDS) is a severe condition that affects the energy-producing structures of cells (called the mitochondria). Signs and symptoms of this condition generally develop early in life and may include encephalopathy, hypotonia (poor muscle tone), seizures, developmental delay, failure to thrive, lactic acidosis and a variety of other health problems. Due to the severity of the condition, most affected babies do not live past infancy. MMDS can be caused by changes in the NFU1 gene or the BOLA3 gene. In these cases, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.
Estimated Number of People with this Disease

This section is currently in development.

What Information Does GARD Have For This Disease?

Many rare diseases have limited information. Currently GARD is able to provide the following information for this disease:

*Data may be currently unavailable to GARD at this time.
When do symptoms of this disease begin?
This section is currently in development. 


This section is currently in development. We recommend speaking with a doctor to learn more about this disease. 


This section is currently in development. 


All individuals inherit two copies of most genes. The number of copies of a gene that need to have a disease-causing variant affects the way a disease is inherited. This disease is inherited in the following pattern(s):


Last Updated: Nov. 8, 2021