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Disease at a Glance

Summary
Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) is a group of rare peripheral neuropathies where neurons and/or axons are affected. The major feature of these conditions is the loss of large myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. Myelin is an insulating layer, or sheath that forms around nerves, made up of protein and fatty substances, that allows electrical impulses to transmit along the nerve cells. If myelin is damaged, these impulses slow down. Symptoms of HSAN include diminished sensation of pain and its associated consequences of delayed healing, Charcot arthopathies, infections, osteomyelitis, and amputations. They have been categorized into types one through five, although some children do not fit well into this classification and do not all have altered pain sensation and/or autonomic function. HSAN type I is the most common form of HSAN. It is caused by a genetic change in the SPTLC1 gene and inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. HSAN type 2 is caused by genetic changes in the WNK1 gene and inheritance is autosomal recessive . HSAN type 3 (Riley-Day syndrome or familial dysautonomia) is caused by genetic changes in the IKBKAP gene and inheritance is autosomal recessive. HSAN type 4, also called congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA), is caused by genetic changes in the NTRK1 gene and is an autosomal recessive disorder. HSAN type 5 is caused by genetic changes in the NGFB gene and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.
Summary
Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) is a group of rare peripheral neuropathies where neurons and/or axons are affected. The major feature of these conditions is the loss of large myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. Myelin is an insulating layer, or sheath that forms around nerves, made up of protein and fatty substances, that allows electrical impulses to transmit along the nerve cells. If myelin is damaged, these impulses slow down. Symptoms of HSAN include diminished sensation of pain and its associated consequences of delayed healing, Charcot arthopathies, infections, osteomyelitis, and amputations. They have been categorized into types one through five, although some children do not fit well into this classification and do not all have altered pain sensation and/or autonomic function. HSAN type I is the most common form of HSAN. It is caused by a genetic change in the SPTLC1 gene and inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. HSAN type 2 is caused by genetic changes in the WNK1 gene and inheritance is autosomal recessive . HSAN type 3 (Riley-Day syndrome or familial dysautonomia) is caused by genetic changes in the IKBKAP gene and inheritance is autosomal recessive. HSAN type 4, also called congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA), is caused by genetic changes in the NTRK1 gene and is an autosomal recessive disorder. HSAN type 5 is caused by genetic changes in the NGFB gene and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.
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Resource(s) for Medical Professionals and Scientists on This Disease:
  • Orphanet  provides GARD with information for this disease.

About Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy

Many rare diseases have limited information. Currently GARD aims to provide the following information for this disease:

  • Population Estimate:This section is currently indevelopment.
  • Symptoms:This section is currently in development.
  • Cause:This disease is caused by a change in the genetic material (DNA).
  • Organizations:GARD is not currently aware of organizations specific to this disease.
  • Categories:Genetic DiseasesNeurological Diseases
When Do Symptoms of Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy Begin?
This section is currently in development. 

Symptoms

This information is currently in development. 

Causes

Genetic Disease

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy is a genetic disease. This means that one or more genes have differences that prevent them from working correctly.

What Is a Gene?

Advocacy and Support Groups

How Can Patient Organizations Help?

Patient organizations can help patients and families connect. They build public awareness of the disease and are a driving force behind research to improve patients' lives. They may offer online and in-person resources to help people live well with their disease. Many collaborate with medical experts and researchers.

Services of patient organizations differ, but may include:

  • Ways to connect to others and share personal stories
  • Easy-to-read information
  • Up-to-date treatment and research information
  • Patient registries
  • Lists of specialists or specialty centers
  • Financial aid and travel resources

Please note: GARD provides organizations for informational purposes only and not as an endorsement of their services. Please contact an organization directly if you have questions about the information or resources it provides.

Patient Organizations

4 Organizations

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Who They Serve

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People With

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United States

People With

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United States

People With

Rare Diseases

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United States

People With

Rare Diseases

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United States

Participating in Clinical Studies

Clinical studies are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances, including rare diseases. Participating in research helps researchers ultimately uncover better ways to treat, prevent, diagnose, and understand human diseases.

What Are Clinical Studies?

  1. Clinical trials determine if a new test or treatment for a disease is effective and safe by comparing groups receiving different tests/treatments.
  2. Observational studies involve recording changes over time among a specific group of people in their natural settings.
Learn more about clinical trials from this U.S. Food & Drug Administration webpage.

Why Participate in Clinical Studies?

Join the All of Us Research Program!

What if There Are No Available Clinical Studies?

What Are Clinical Studies?

Clinical studies are medical research involving people as participants. There are two main types of clinical studies:
  1. Clinical trials determine if a new test or treatment for a disease is effective and safe by comparing groups receiving different tests/treatments.
  2. Observational studies involve recording changes over time among a specific group of people in their natural settings.
Learn more about clinical trials from this U.S. Food & Drug Administration webpage.
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Why Participate in Clinical Studies?

People participate in clinical trials for many reasons. People with a disease may participate to receive the newest possible treatment and additional care from clinical study staff as well as to help others living with the same or similar disease. Healthy volunteers may participate to help others and to contribute to moving science forward.

To find the right clinical study we recommend you consult your doctors, other trusted medical professionals, and patient organizations. Additionally, you can use ClinicalTrials.gov to search for clinical studies by disease, terms, or location.
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Join the All of Us Research Program!

What if There Are No Available Clinical Studies?

ClinicalTrials.gov, an affiliate of NIH, provides current information on clinical research studies in the United States and abroad. Talk to a trusted doctor before choosing to participate in any clinical study. We recommend checking this site often and searching for studies with related terms/synonyms to improve results.
Please contact GARD if you need help finding additional information or resources on rare diseases, including clinical studies. Note, GARD cannot enroll individuals in clinical studies.
Available toll-free Monday through Friday from 12 pm to 6 pm Eastern Time
(Except: Federal Holidays)
Use the contact form to send your questions to a GARD Information Specialist.

Please allow 2 to 10 business days for us to respond.
ClinicalTrials.gov, an affiliate of NIH, provides current information on clinical research studies in the United States and abroad. Talk to a trusted doctor before choosing to participate in any clinical study. We recommend checking this site often and searching for studies with related terms/synonyms to improve results.
Please contact GARD if you need help finding additional information or resources on rare diseases, including clinical studies. Note, GARD cannot enroll individuals in clinical studies.
Available toll-free Monday through Friday from 12 pm to 6 pm Eastern Time
(Except: Federal Holidays)
Use the contact form to send your questions to a GARD Information Specialist.

Please allow 2 to 10 business days for us to respond.
Getting a Diagnosis

Take steps toward getting a diagnosis by working with your doctor, finding the right specialists, and coordinating medical care.

Last Updated: February 2023