The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) provides the following list of features that have been reported in people with this condition. Much of the information in the HPO comes from Orphanet, a European rare disease database. If available, the list includes a rough estimate of how common a feature is (its frequency). Frequencies are based on a specific study and may not be representative of all studies. You can use the MedlinePlus Medical Dictionary for definitions of the terms below.
|Signs and Symptoms||Approximate number of patients (when available)|
|Abnormality of the pupil||90%|
|Abnormality of the renal tubule||90%|
|Abnormality of the voice||90%|
|Neurological speech impairment||90%|
|Abnormal hair quantity||50%|
|Abnormality of calcium-phosphate metabolism||50%|
|Abnormality of the pinna||50%|
|Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder||50%|
|Benign neoplasm of the central nervous system||50%|
|Deeply set eye||50%|
|Feeding difficulties in infancy||50%|
|Low-set, posteriorly rotated ears||50%|
|Neoplasm of the skin||50%|
|Reduced bone mineral density||50%|
|Vitamin D deficiency||50%|
|Abnormality of dental enamel||7.5%|
|Abnormality of dentin||7.5%|
|Abnormality of epiphysis morphology||7.5%|
|Abnormality of lipid metabolism||7.5%|
|Abnormality of the hip bone||7.5%|
|Abnormality of the metaphyses||7.5%|
|Abnormality of the palate||7.5%|
|Abnormality of the ribs||7.5%|
|Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the lens||7.5%|
|Atypical scarring of skin||7.5%|
|Delayed eruption of teeth||7.5%|
|Everted lower lip vermilion||7.5%|
|Functional abnormality of male internal genitalia||7.5%|
|Limitation of joint mobility||7.5%|
|Opacification of the corneal stroma||7.5%|
|Polycystic kidney dysplasia||7.5%|
|Recurrent respiratory infections||7.5%|
|Reduced number of teeth||7.5%|
|Thin vermilion border||7.5%|
|Upslanted palpebral fissure||7.5%|
|Dense posterior cortical cataract||-|
|Elevated amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein||-|
|Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein||-|
|Elevated serum acid phosphatase||-|
|Failure to thrive||-|
|Hypoplasia of dental enamel||-|
|Proximal renal tubular acidosis||-|
|Reduced visual acuity||-|
|Renal Fanconi syndrome||-|
|X-linked recessive inheritance||-|
Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.
The resources below provide information about treatment options for this condition. If you have questions about which treatment is right for you, talk to your healthcare professional.
Research helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. This section provides resources to help you learn about medical research and ways to get involved.
Nonprofit support and advocacy groups bring together patients, families, medical professionals, and researchers. These groups often raise awareness, provide support, and develop patient-centered information. Many are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct people to research, resources, and services. Many groups also have experts who serve as medical advisors. Visit their website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD. Suggest an organization to add.
Living with a genetic or rare disease can impact the daily lives of patients and families. These resources can help families navigate various aspects of living with a rare disease.
These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.