There is no cure for neuromyelitis optica, but there are therapies to treat an attack while it is happening, to reduce symptoms, and to prevent relapses. Doctors usually treat an initial attack of neuromyelitis optica with a combination of corticosteroid drugs to stop the attack and immunosuppressive drugs to prevent additional attacks. If frequent relapses occur, some people may need to continue a low dose of steroids for longer periods. Plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) is a technique that separates antibodies out of the blood stream and is used with people who do not respond to corticosteroid therapy. Pain, stiffness, muscle spasms, and bladder and bowel control problems can be managed with the appropriate medications and therapies. People with neuromyelitis optica may require the combined efforts of occupational therapists, physical therapists, and social services professionals to address their complex rehabilitation needs.