Disease at a Glance

Summary
Glutaric acidemia type II (GA2) is a disorder that interferes with the body's ability to break down proteins and fats to produce energy. The severity of GA2 varies widely. Babies most severely affected may be born with physical abnormalities including brain malformations, an enlarged liver, kidney malformations, unusual facial features, and genital abnormalities. They may also emit an odor resembling sweaty feet. Others have a less severe form which may appear in infancy, childhood, or even adulthood. Most often, GA2 first appears in infancy or early childhood as a sudden episode of a metabolic crisis that can cause weakness, behavior changes (such as poor feeding and decreased activity) and vomiting. GA2 is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and is caused by genetic changes in the ETFA, ETFB, or ETFDH genes.

About Glutaric acidemia type II

Many rare diseases have limited information. Currently GARD is able to provide the following information for Glutaric acidemia type II:

  • Population Estimate:In the US, there are less than 5,000 with this disease.
  • Symptoms:May start to appear at any time in life.
  • Experts:Patient organizations are available to help find a specialist for this condition.
  • Organizations:Organizations specific to this condition are available to help find support. 
  • Newborn Screening:This condition may be detected through routine newborn screening.
  • Categories:Neurological DiseaseInherited Metabolic DiseaseGenetic Disease
When do symptoms of this disease begin?
The most common ages for symptoms of a disease to begin is called age of onset. Age of onset can vary for different diseases and may be used by a doctor to determine the diagnosis. For some diseases, symptoms may begin in a single age range or several age ranges. For other diseases, symptoms may begin any time during a person's life.
Prenatal Selected
Before Birth
Newborn Selected
Birth-4 weeks
Infant Selected
1-23 months
Child Selected
2-11 years
Adolescent Selected
12-18 years
Adult Selected
19-65 years
Older Adult Selected
65+ years
Symptoms may start to appear at any time in life.

Symptoms

These symptoms may be different from person to person. Some people may have more symptoms than others and symptoms can range from mild to severe. This list does not include every symptom.
This disease might cause these symptoms:
Musculoskeletal... Musculoskeletal System

46 Symptoms

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Musculoskeletal System

Musculoskeletal System

The musculoskeletal system is made up of the bones, muscles, and joints. Common symptoms of problems in the musculoskeletal system include pain, weakness, stiffness, noises in the joints, inflammation, and decreased range of motion. Diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system may be diagnosed and treated by an orthopedist, rheumatologist, or neuromuscular specialist.

Causes

This section is currently in development. 

Inheritance

All individuals inherit two copies of most genes. The number of copies of a gene that need to have a disease-causing variant affects the way a disease is inherited. This disease is inherited in the following pattern(s):

Autosomal recessive inheritance

Autosomal means the gene is located on any chromosome except the X or Y chromosomes (sex chromosomes). Genes, like chromosomes, usually come in pairs. Recessive means that both copies of the responsible gene must have a disease-causing change (pathogenic variant) in order for a person to have the disease. Mutation is an older term that is still sometimes used to mean pathogenic variant.

A person who has an autosomal recessive disease receives a gene with a pathogenic variant from each of their parents. Each parent is a carrier which means they have a pathogenic variant in only one copy of the gene. Carriers of an autosomal recessive disease usually do not have any symptoms of the disease. When two carriers of an autosomal recessive disease have children, there is a 25% (1 in 4) chance to have a child who has the disease.
Autosomal means the gene is located on any chromosome except the X or Y chromosomes (sex chromosomes). Genes, like chromosomes, usually come in pairs. Recessive means that both copies of the responsible gene must have a disease-causing change (pathogenic variant) in order for a person to have the disease. Mutation is an older term that is still sometimes used to mean pathogenic variant.

A person who has an autosomal recessive disease receives a gene with a pathogenic variant from each of their parents. Each parent is a carrier which means they have a pathogenic variant in only one copy of the gene. Carriers of an autosomal recessive disease usually do not have any symptoms of the disease. When two carriers of an autosomal recessive disease have children, there is a 25% (1 in 4) chance to have a child who has the disease.
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Advocacy and Support Groups

How can a patient organization be helpful?

Patient advocacy and support organizations offer many valuable services and often drive the research and development of treatments for their disease(s). Because these organizations include the life experiences of many different people who have a specific disease, they may best understand the resources needed by those in their community. Although missions of organizations may differ, services may include, but are not limited to:
 

  • Ways to connect to others and share personal stories
  • Easy-to-read information
  • Latest treatment and research information
  • Lists of specialists or specialty centers
  • Financial aid and travel resources
Please note: GARD provides the names of patient organizations for informational purposes only and not as an endorsement of their services. Please contact the organization directly if you have questions about the information or resources they provide.

What do disease-specific organizations do?

Some organizations build a community of patients and families impacted by a specific disease or group of related diseases. These organizations usually have more disease-specific information and services, including helping new members find others who have the same disease.

What do organizations that focus on a medical condition do?

Some organizations build a community of patients and families impacted by a medical condition, like epilepsy, or related conditions, like heart problems, that may also be a symptom in other diseases. These organizations usually have information and services focused more on the medical condition(s), but may also have information about associated diseases.

What do umbrella organizations do?

Rare disease umbrella organizations focus on improving the lives of all those impacted by rare diseases through education and advocacy efforts. Umbrella organizations provide a range of services for patients, families, and disease-specific organizations.

Patient Organizations

7 Organizations

Organization Name

Organization Type

Service

Country

Language

United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation
https://www.umdf.org
Disease Specific

Glutaric Acidemia Type Ii

Service

Information

Research

Specialist

Country

United States

Language

English

Disease Specific

Glutaric Acidemia Type Ii

Service

Information

Research

Specialist

Country

United Kingdom

Language

English

Spanish

Disease Specific

Glutaric Acidemia Type Ii

Service

Information

Research

Specialist

Country

United States

Language

English

EveryLife Foundation for Rare Diseases
https://everylifefoundation.org/
Umbrella

Glutaric Acidemia Type Ii

Service

Information

Country

United States

Language

English

Spanish

Umbrella

Glutaric Acidemia Type Ii

Service

Information

Country

United States

Language

English

Umbrella

Glutaric Acidemia Type Ii

Service

Information

Country

United States

Language

English

National Organization for Rare Disorders
https://rarediseases.org/
Umbrella

Glutaric Acidemia Type Ii

Service

Information

Research

Country

United States

Language

English

Spanish

7 Organizations

Research

Why is Research Important for Rare Diseases?

Research increases what we know about rare diseases so that people can get a diagnosis more quickly and can know what to expect. Research also helps doctors better understand how well a treatment works and can lead to new treatment discoveries. It may even help improve diagnosis and treatment of more common diseases.

How do you find the right clinical study?

  • Discuss the clinical study with a trusted medical provider before enrolling
  • Review the "Study Description," which discusses the purpose of the study, and "Eligibility Criteria," which lists who can and cannot participate in the study
  • Work with the research coordinator to review the written informed consent, including the risks and benefits of the study
  • Inquire about the specific treatments and procedures, location of the study, number of visits, and time obligation
  • Determine whether health insurance is required and whether there are costs to the participant for the medical care, travel, and lodging
  • Ask questions. Remember, it is okay to decide not to participate in research

For More Information

How do you find the right clinical study?

  • Discuss the clinical study with a trusted medical provider before enrolling
  • Review the "Study Description," which discusses the purpose of the study, and "Eligibility Criteria," which lists who can and cannot participate in the study
  • Work with the research coordinator to review the written informed consent, including the risks and benefits of the study
  • Inquire about the specific treatments and procedures, location of the study, number of visits, and time obligation
  • Determine whether health insurance is required and whether there are costs to the participant for the medical care, travel, and lodging
  • Ask questions. Remember, it is okay to decide not to participate in research

For More Information

ClinicalTrials.gov provides current information on clinical research studies in the United States and abroad. Talk to a trusted doctor before choosing to participate in any clinical study. Check this site often for new trials that become available.
Please contact GARD if you need help. Our Information Specialists can help you find a clinical trial and answer questions about rare diseases. GARD cannot enroll individuals in clinical trials.
ClinicalTrials.gov provides current information on clinical research studies in the United States and abroad. Talk to a trusted doctor before choosing to participate in any clinical study. Check this site often for new trials that become available.
Please contact GARD if you need help. Our Information Specialists can help you find a clinical trial and answer questions about rare diseases. GARD cannot enroll individuals in clinical trials.

Take steps toward getting a diagnosis by working with your doctor, finding the right specialists, and coordinating medical care.

Last Updated: February 2023