This condition also affects other parts of the body, including the bones and teeth. Many people with this condition have skeletal abnormalities such as an unusually large range of joint movement (hyperextensibility), an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis), reduced bone density (osteopenia), and a tendency for bones to fracture easily. Dental abnormalities are also common in AD-HIES. The primary (baby) teeth do not fall out at the usual time during childhood, but are retained as the adult teeth grow in. Other signs and symptoms of AD-HIES can include distinctive facial features and structural abnormalities of the brain, which typically do not affect a person's intelligence.
The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) provides the following list of features that have been reported in people with this condition. Much of the information in the HPO comes from Orphanet, a European rare disease database. If available, the list includes a rough estimate of how common a feature is (its frequency). Frequencies are based on a specific study and may not be representative of all studies. You can use the MedlinePlus Medical Dictionary for definitions of the terms below.
|Signs and Symptoms||Approximate number of patients (when available)|
|Abnormality of eosinophils||50%|
|Abnormality of the fingernails||50%|
|Abnormality of the nose||50%|
|Deeply set eye||50%|
|Delayed eruption of teeth||50%|
|Reduced bone mineral density||50%|
|Abnormal blistering of the skin||7.5%|
|Abnormality of temperature regulation||7.5%|
|Autosomal dominant inheritance||-|
|Coarse facial features||-|
|Increased IgE level||-|
|Persistence of primary teeth||-|
|Recurrent fungal infections||-|
|Recurrent sinopulmonary infections||-|
|Recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections||-|
Changes in the STAT3 gene alter the structure and function of the STAT3 protein, impairing its ability to control the activity of other genes. The defective protein disrupts cellular functions such as immune system regulation. The resulting immune system abnormalities make people with AD-HIES highly susceptible to infections. The STAT3 protein is also involved in the formation of cells that build and break down bone tissue, which could explain why STAT3 gene mutations lead to the skeletal and dental abnormalities characteristic of AD-HIES. It remains unclear how STAT3 gene mutations lead to increased IgE levels.
When AD-HIES syndrome is not caused by STAT3 gene mutations, the genetic cause of is unknown.
Autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. This means that one copy of an altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In about half of all cases, an affected person inherits a STAT3 mutation from an affected parent. Other cases result from new mutations in this gene. These cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family.
A small percentage (<5%) of individuals who have the clinical symptoms associated with AD-HIES do not have an identifiable mutation in the STAT3 gene. This suggests that there are additional unidentified mutations.
The resources below provide information about treatment options for this condition. If you have questions about which treatment is right for you, talk to your healthcare professional.
Research helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. This section provides resources to help you learn about medical research and ways to get involved.
The Jak/Stat Pathway: 20 Years from Discovery to Drugs
Thursday, September 22, 2011 -
Saturday, September 24, 2011
Location: NIH Natcher Center, Bethesda, MD
Description: As a scientific conference, the primary goal is the dissemination of recent data and developments in the field to intersted researchers in the field. The conference includes a scientific program and reception, which will help to foster collaboration and networking. Participants should achieve a better understanding of the state of the art research in this exciting and clinically relevant field.
Contact: Megan Laycock,(301) 594-7527Megan.firstname.lastname@example.org
Co-funding Institute(s): National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Office of Rare Diseases Research