Though an association between these two conditions has been suggested for quite some time, there appears to be no direct evidence that a history of diabetes causes Ledderhose disease. Ledderhose disease may be indirectly associated with diabetes in that both conditions are associated with Dupuytren contracture, a condition in which there is a thickening of the skin on the palms of the hand. Patients with diabetes have a 5-10 times greater risk to develop Dupuytren contracture, and Dupuytren contracture has been associated with an increased chance to develop Ledderhose disease. Because of the joint association of these two conditions to Dupuytren contracture, it seems logical that Ledderhose disease may occur in individuals with diabetes, even if there are few examples of this in the literature. There is a report of a woman with a 30-year history of diabetes who first developed Dupuytren contracture, and then went on to develop Ledderhose disease several years later. 
Last updated: 2/24/2011
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Elhadd TA, Ghosh S, Malik MI, and Collier A. Plantar fibromatosis and Dupuytren's disease: an association to remember in patients with diabetes. Diabet Med. 2007; 11:1305. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17956459. Accessed 2/23/2011.