Is there a genetic cause of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor?
Presently, most mixed Mullerian tumors (MMMT) are thought to occur by chance without an association to a genetic predisposition. There have been rare reports of MMMT of the uterus developing in individuals with Lynch syndrome, an inherited condition in which individuals have a genetic predisposition to develop certain cancers including uterine cancer. One article in the medical literature describes two cases of MMMT of the ovary in women with personal and family histories of breast cancer, and the authors state that these cases of MMMT of the ovary are suggestive of hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. As such, these authors state that genetic testing should be considered in women with MMMT of the ovary. Overall, there is currently very little information about the cause of MMMT.
Last updated: 4/8/2015
What are the risk factors for malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT)?
Researchers have identified risk factors for the development of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT) of the uterus. These risk factors include: never bearing a child, older age ( > 50 years old), obesity, exposure to estrogen and long-term use of tamoxifen. Oral contraceptive use has been found to help lower the risk of developing a malignant mixed Mullerian tumor.
Last updated: 4/8/2015
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Lu KH, Daniels M. Endometrial and ovarian cancer in women with Lynch syndrome: update in screening and prevention. Familial Cancer. 2013; 12(2):273-277. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23765559. Accessed 7/23/2014.
Lavie O, Longacre T, Segev Y, Husain A. Ovarian carcinosarcomas associated with prolonged use of tamoxifen: case reports. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer. 2009; 19(9):1521-1523. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19955929. Accessed 4/8/2015.
Kanthan, Senger. Uterine Carcinosarcomas (Malignant Mixed Müllerian Tumours): A Review with Special Emphasis on the Controversies in Management. Obstetrics and Gynecology International. 2011; 10:1155. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ogi/2011/470795/. Accessed 12/10/2012.