Susac syndrome is an autoimmune condition that affects very fine blood vessels in the brain, retina, and cochlea (inner ear). It is characterized by three main symptoms: encephalopathy (which can cause headache, mild memory loss, personality changes, and confusion); sensorineural hearing loss; and vision loss. Most people do not have all the symptoms of Susac syndrome at the beginning of their illness but develop symptoms over the course of several years. Susac syndrome affects women more than men and the age of onset is usually between 20 and 40 years. The cause of this condition is still unknown. Corticosteroids, antiplatelets,anticoagulation, and cyclophosphamide have been used to treat Susac syndrome. However, the extent to which individuals respond to treatment is not clear. Improvement may occur spontaneously although in some cases there may be residual dysfunction.