This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.
|Medical Terms||Other Names||
|80%-99% of people have these symptoms|
Prominent back of the skull
Prominent posterior skull[ more ]
|Subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma||0009718|
|30%-79% of people have these symptoms|
|Achromatic retinal patches||0009727|
Psychiatric disturbances[ more ]
|Confetti-like hypopigmented macules||0007449|
|Hypopigmented skin patches||
Patchy loss of skin color
Mental retardation, nonspecific
Mental-retardation[ more ]
|Multiple cafe-au-lait spots||0007565|
|5%-29% of people have these symptoms|
|Abnormality of the liver||
Liver abnormality[ more ]
|Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the
Abnormal heart rate
Heart rhythm disorders
Irregular heart beat
Irregular heartbeat[ more ]
Abnormal deposits of calcium in the brain
|Congestive heart failure||
Heart failure[ more ]
|Dental enamel pits||
Pitting of tooth enamel
Tooth enamel pits[ more ]
Wider than typical opening or gap
Red and swollen gums[ more ]
|Increased intracranial pressure||
Rise in pressure inside skull
|Multiple renal cysts||
Multiple kidney cysts
Cancer of the pancreas
Pancreatic tumor[ more ]
Early onset of puberty
Early puberty[ more ]
Renal failure in adulthood[ more ]
|Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO|
|Abnormality of the respiratory system||0002086|
|Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder||
Attention deficit disorder
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder
Childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder[ more ]
|Optic nerve glioma||0009734|
|Projection of scalp hair onto lateral cheek||
Hair growing down to cheek
|Renal cell carcinoma||
Cancer starting in small tubes in kidneys
|Specific learning disability||0001328|
Firm lump under the skin
Growth of abnormal tissue under the skin[ more ]
Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.
The resources below provide information about treatment options for this condition. If you have questions about which treatment is right for you, talk to your healthcare professional.
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If you need medical advice, you can look for doctors or other healthcare professionals who have experience with this disease. You may find these specialists through advocacy organizations, clinical trials, or articles published in medical journals. You may also want to contact a university or tertiary medical center in your area, because these centers tend to see more complex cases and have the latest technology and treatments.
If you can’t find a specialist in your local area, try contacting national or international specialists. They may be able to refer you to someone they know through conferences or research efforts. Some specialists may be willing to consult with you or your local doctors over the phone or by email if you can't travel to them for care.
You can find more tips in our guide, How to Find a Disease Specialist. We also encourage you to explore the rest of this page to find resources that can help you find specialists.
Related diseases are conditions that have similar signs and symptoms. A health care provider may consider these conditions in the table below when making a diagnosis. Please note that the table may not include all the possible conditions related to this disease.
Conditions with similar signs and symptoms from Orphanet
The differential diagnosis includes vitiligo, Ito hypomelanosis, cardiac myxoma, isolated brain tumors, pulmonary emphysema, acne, skin rash.
Visit the Orphanet disease page for more information.
Research helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. This section provides resources to help you learn about medical research and ways to get involved.
Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.
Living with a genetic or rare disease can impact the daily lives of patients and families. These resources can help families navigate various aspects of living with a rare disease.
These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.
Questions sent to GARD may be posted here if the information could be helpful to others. We remove all identifying information when posting a question to protect your privacy. If you do not want your question posted, please let us know. Submit a new question
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