Glycogen storage disease type 1 is an inherited disorder caused by the buildup of a complex sugar called glycogen in the body's cells. The accumulation of glycogen in certain organs and tissues, especially the liver, kidneys, and small intestines, impairs their ability to function normally. Researchers have described two types of glycogen storage disease type 1, which differ in their signs and symptoms and genetic cause. These types are known as glycogen storage disease type IA and glycogen storage disease type IB.
Glycogen storage disease type 1A is characterized by growth retardation leading to short stature and accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver and kidneys. Although some newborns present with severe hypoglycemia, it is more common for infants to present at age three to four months with hepatomegaly, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia, and/or hypoglycemic seizures. Untreated children typically have doll-like faces with fat cheeks and relatively thin extremities. Xanthoma and diarrhea may be present. Impaired platelet function can lead to a bleeding tendency, making epistaxis a frequent problem. Glycogen storage disease type 1A is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) catalytic activity which results from mutations in the G6PC gene. This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.
The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) provides the following list of features that have been reported in people with this condition. Much of the information in the HPO comes from Orphanet, a European rare disease database. If available, the list includes a rough estimate of how common a feature is (its frequency). Frequencies are based on a specific study and may not be representative of all studies. You can use the MedlinePlus Medical Dictionary for definitions of the terms below.
|Signs and Symptoms||Approximate number of patients (when available)|
|Abnormality of lipid metabolism||90%|
|Recurrent respiratory infections||90%|
|Autosomal recessive inheritance||-|
|Decreased glomerular filtration rate||-|
|Decreased muscle mass||-|
|Elevated hepatic transaminases||-|
|Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis||-|
Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.
The resources below provide information about treatment options for this condition. If you have questions about which treatment is right for you, talk to your healthcare professional.
Nonprofit support and advocacy groups bring together patients, families, medical professionals, and researchers. These groups often raise awareness, provide support, and develop patient-centered information. Many are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct people to research, resources, and services. Many groups also have experts who serve as medical advisors. Visit their website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD. Suggest an organization to add.
Living with a genetic or rare disease can impact the daily lives of patients and families. These resources can help families navigate various aspects of living with a rare disease.