Disease at a Glance

Summary
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 is an inherited autoimmune condition that affects many of the body's organs. Symptoms often begin in childhood or adolescence and may include mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison disease. This syndrome can cause a variety of additional signs and symptoms, such as weak teeth (enamel hypoplasia) and chronic diarrhea or constipation. Complications of APS-1 can affect the bones, joints, skin, and nails, the gonads (ovaries and testicles), the eyes, the thyroid, and several internal organs (kidneys, liver, lungs and the spleen). Anemia may also be present due to a lack of production of the red blood cells. Type 1 diabetes also occurs in some patients with this condition. Diagnosis is suspected when there are at least two of these features, specially in young people. APS-1 is caused by variations in the AIRE gene. Inheritance is autosomal recessive.
Estimated Number of People with this Disease
In the U.S. there may be between

300 to 3,000

What Information Does GARD Have For This Disease?

Many rare diseases have limited information. Currently GARD is able to provide the following information for this disease:

*Data may be currently unavailable to GARD at this time.
When do symptoms of this disease begin?
The most common ages for symptoms of a disease to begin is called age of onset. Age of onset can vary for different diseases and may be used by a doctor to determine the diagnosis. For some diseases, symptoms may begin in a single age range or several age ranges. For other diseases, symptoms may begin any time during a person's life.
Prenatal
Before Birth
Newborn
Birth-4 weeks
Infant
1-23 months
Child Selected
2-11 years
Adolescent Selected
12-18 years
Adult
19-65 years
Older Adult
65+ years
The common ages for symptoms to begin in this disease are shown above by the colored icon(s).

Symptoms

These symptoms may be different from person to person. Some people may have more symptoms than others and symptoms can range from mild to severe. This list does not include every symptom.
This disease might cause these symptoms:
Endocrine System

17 Symptoms

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Endocrine System

The endocrine system is made up of a series of glands that produce and secrete hormones throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, pineal, and adrenal glands, and the thymus, pancreas, testes, and ovaries. When endocrine glands produce too much or too little hormone, health problems such as weight gain, high blood pressure, and changes in sleep, mood, and behavior can occur. Disease of the endocrine can be diagnosed and treated by an endocrinologist.

Causes

Genetic Disease

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 is a genetic disease, which means that it is caused by one or more genes not working correctly.

Disease causing variants in the following gene(s) are known to cause this disease: AIRE

Questions:

Inheritance

All individuals inherit two copies of most genes. The number of copies of a gene that need to have a disease-causing variant affects the way a disease is inherited. This disease is inherited in the following pattern(s):

Questions:

Next Steps

Talking with the Medical Team

Good communication between the patient, family, and medical team can lead to an accurate diagnosis. In addition, health care decisions can be made together which improves the patient’s well-being and quality of life.

Describing Symptoms

Describe details about the symptoms. Because there may be many different causes for a single symptom, it is best not to make a conclusion about the diagnosis. The detailed descriptions help the medical provider determine the correct diagnosis.

To help describe a symptom:

  • Use a smartphone or a notebook to record each symptom before the appointment
  • Describe each symptom by answering the following questions:
    • When did the symptom start?
    • How often does it happen?
    • Does anything make it better or worse?
  • Tell the medical team whether any symptoms affect daily activities

Preparing for the First Visit

Working with a medical team to find a diagnosis can be a long process that will require more than one appointment. Make better health decisions by being prepared for the first visit with each member of the medical team.

    Make informed decisions about health care: 
    • Prepare a list of questions and concerns before the appointment
    • List the most important questions first, not all questions may be answered in the first visit
    • Ask questions about symptoms, possible diagnoses, tests, and treatment options
    For future appointments:
    • Discuss what was not addressed at the last visit
    • Discuss changes in the quality of life for the patient, family, and caregivers
    • Discuss health goals and other issues in the patient’s and family’s life that may affect the health care decisions
    Take notes during the appointments to help remember what was discussed.

    Last Updated: Nov. 8, 2021