- Elevated total and LDL cholesterol levels
- Coronary heart disease which can cause angina (heart pain), nonfatal or fatal heart attacks, need for angioplasty, or sudden death
- Cerebrovascular disease which may cause stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)
- Peripheral vascular disease which may cause pain when walking that is relieved by rest
- Aortic aneurysm that may rupture, causing catastrophic bleeding and often death
- Xanthomas (firm nodules under the skin caused by deposition of cholesterol on tendons)
- Corneal arcus (an opaque, white line within the margin of the cornea that is above or surrounds the cornea)
- Xanthelasmas (cholesterol deposits on, above or under the eyelids)
Men who have FH may have heart attacks in their 40s to 50s, and 85% of men with the disorder have a heart attack by age 60. Affected women may have heart attacks in their 50s and 60s.
Individuals with the rare, autosomal recessive form of FH (also called homozygous FH) develop xanthomas beneath the skin over their elbows, knees and buttocks as well as in the tendons at a very early age, sometime in infancy. In individuals with this form of FH, heart attacks and/or death may occur before age 30, sometimes in young children if they are not aggressively treated.
The Human Phenotype Ontology provides the following list of signs and symptoms for Familial hypercholesterolemia. If the information is available, the table below includes how often the symptom is seen in people with this condition. You can use the MedlinePlus Medical Dictionary to look up the definitions for these medical terms.
|Signs and Symptoms||Approximate number of patients (when available)|
The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) has collected information on how often a sign or symptom occurs in a condition. Much of this information comes from Orphanet, a European rare disease database. The frequency of a sign or symptom is usually listed as a rough estimate of the percentage of patients who have that feature.
The frequency may also be listed as a fraction. The first number of the fraction is how many people had the symptom, and the second number is the total number of people who were examined in one study. For example, a frequency of 25/25 means that in a study of 25 people all patients were found to have that symptom. Because these frequencies are based on a specific study, the fractions may be different if another group of patients are examined.
Sometimes, no information on frequency is available. In these cases, the sign or symptom may be rare or common.
- Familial Hypercholesterolemia. NORD. July 25, 2011; http://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/811/viewAbstract. Accessed 10/22/2013.
- Learning About Familial Hypercholesterolemia. NHGRI. March 23, 2011; http://www.genome.gov/25520184. Accessed 10/22/2013.