- Cerebral arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy
- Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy
- Dementia, hereditary multi-infarct type
- Familial vascular leukoencephalopathy
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A decline in thinking ability (cognitive deficit) is the second most common feature and occurs in over half of affected people. This may begin as early as 35 years of age. CADASIL typically causes a slow decline in thought processes, and approximately 75% of affected people eventually develop dementia (including significant difficulty with reasoning and memory). Thirty percent of people with CADASIL also experience psychiatric issues, varying from personality changes to severe depression.
Migraines with aura occur in about 35% of people with CADASIL, with the first attack occurring at an average age of 26 years. Epilepsy is present in 10% of affected people and usually presents at middle age.
The Human Phenotype Ontology provides the following list of signs and symptoms for CADASIL. If the information is available, the table below includes how often the symptom is seen in people with this condition. You can use the MedlinePlus Medical Dictionary to look up the definitions for these medical terms.
The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) has collected information on how often a sign or symptom occurs in a condition. Much of this information comes from Orphanet, a European rare disease database. The frequency of a sign or symptom is usually listed as a rough estimate of the percentage of patients who have that feature.
The frequency may also be listed as a fraction. The first number of the fraction is how many people had the symptom, and the second number is the total number of people who were examined in one study. For example, a frequency of 25/25 means that in a study of 25 people all patients were found to have that symptom. Because these frequencies are based on a specific study, the fractions may be different if another group of patients are examined.
Sometimes, no information on frequency is available. In these cases, the sign or symptom may be rare or common.
- Lesnik Oberstein SAJ, Boom EMJ, Dichgans M. CADASIL. GeneReviews. July 23, 2009; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1500/. Accessed 3/22/2011.