- Diaphyseal dysplasia 1, progressive
- Engelmann disease
- Progressive diaphyseal dysplasia
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Mutations in the TGFB1 gene cause Camurati-Engelmann disease. The TGFB1 gene provides instructions for producing a protein called transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ-1). The TGFβ-1 protein helps control the growth and division (proliferation) of cells, the process by which cells mature to carry out specific functions (differentiation), cell movement (motility), and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). The TGFβ-1 protein is found throughout the body and plays a role in development before birth, the formation of blood vessels, the regulation of muscle tissue and body fat development, wound healing, and immune system function. TGFβ-1 is particularly abundant in tissues that make up the skeleton, where it helps regulate bone growth, and in the intricate lattice that forms in the spaces between cells (the extracellular matrix).
Within cells, the TGFβ-1 protein is turned off (inactive) until it receives a chemical signal to become active. The TGFB1 gene mutations that cause Camurati-Engelmann disease result in the production of a TGFβ-1 protein that is always turned on (active). Overactive TGFβ-1 proteins lead to increased bone density and decreased body fat and muscle tissue, contributing to the signs and symptoms of Camurati-Engelmann disease.
Some individuals with Camurati-Engelmnan disease do not have identified mutations in the TGFB1 gene. In these cases, the cause of the condition is unknown.
- Camurati-Engelmann disease. Genetics Home Reference. April 2008; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=camuratiengelmanndisease.