- Isolated levocardia with situs inversus
- Situs inversus with levocardia
Isolated levocardia is a type of situs inversus where the heart is located in the normal position, but there is a mirror-image reversal of other internal organs. Isolated levocardia may occur alone or with heart defects, heart rhythm abnormalities (sick sinus syndrome or atrioventricular node disorder), spleen defects (absent, underdeveloped, or extra spleen), and intestinal malrotation. Long term outlook varies depending on the presence/absence of associated abnormalities, particularly heart defects. The cause of isolated levocardia is not known. It is not usually associated with chromosome abnormalities.
- Ghawi H1, Zghouzi MM, Emahbes TM, Awad SM. Prenatal diagnosis of isolated levocardia and a structurally normal heart: two case reports and a review of the literature. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013 Apr; 34(4):1034-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Ghawi%5Bau%5D+levocardia. Accessed 3/10/2014.
- Gindes L, Hegesh J, Barkai G, Jacobson JM, Achiron R. Isolated levocardia: prenatal diagnosis, clinical importance, and literature review. J Ultrasound Med. 2007 Mar; 26(3):361-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17324986. Accessed 3/10/2014.
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- Gindes L, Hegesh J, Barkai G, Jacobson JM, Achiron R. Isolated levocardia: prenatal diagnosis, clinical importance, and literature review. J Ultrasound Med. 2007 Mar;26(3):361-5.