Triple A syndrome
Other Names for this Disease
- 2A syndrome
- 3A syndrome
- 4A syndrome
- AAA syndrome
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achalasia, Addison disease, and alacrima (a reduced or absent ability to secrete tears). Most people with triple A syndrome have all three of these features, although some have only two. Several authors published descriptions of a more global autonomic disturbance associated with the original three characteristics, leading one author to suggest the name 4A syndrome (adrenal insufficiency, achalasia, alacrima, autonomic abnormalities). Specific autonomic disturbances described in this syndrome include abnormal pupillary reflexes, poor heart rate variability, and orthostatic hypotension. Affected individuals may also have developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech problems, a small head size, muscle weakness, movement problems, peripheral neuropathy, and optic atrophy. Many of the neurological symptoms of triple A syndrome worsen over time. Triple A syndrome is caused by mutations in the AAAS gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Alacrimia is treated with artificial tears while achalasia may need surgery with either pneumatic dilatation or Heller's myotomy. Adrenal insufficiency is treated with glucocorticoid and if necessary mineralocorticoid replacement.Triple A syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by three specific features:
Last updated: 9/24/2015
- Boston BA & Marks DL. Allgrove (AAA) Syndrome. Medscape Reference. February 27, 2013; http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/919360-treatment. Accessed 9/24/2015.
- Triple A syndrome. Genetics Home Reference. February 2010; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/triple-a-syndrome. Accessed 9/24/2015.
- Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Triple A syndrome. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
- Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
- Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Triple A syndrome. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.