See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.
enamel of the teeth. This condition causes teeth to be unusually small, discolored, pitted or grooved, and prone to rapid wear and breakage. These dental problems, which vary among affected individuals, can affect both primary (baby) teeth and permanent teeth. There are 4 main types of AI that are classified based on the type of enamel defect. These 4 types are divided further into 14 subtypes, which are distinguished by their specific dental abnormalities and by their pattern of inheritance. AI can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive pattern.Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) (amelogenesis - enamel formation; imperfecta - imperfect) is a disorder that affects the structure and appearance of the
Last updated: 12/12/2013
- Wright JT. Amelogenesis Imperfecta. Developmental Defects of the Teeth. https://www.dentistry.unc.edu/dentalprofessionals/resources/defects/ai/. Accessed 9/17/2015.
- Amelogenesis imperfecta. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). May 2015; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/amelogenesis-imperfecta. Accessed 9/10/2015.
- Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Amelogenesis imperfecta. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
- MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
- The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.
- The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
- Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Amelogenesis imperfecta. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.