- Acrocephalo-syndactyly type 1
- ACS 1
- Apert-Crouzon disease
- Syndactylic oxycephaly
Tests & Diagnosis
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Apert syndrome and the other conditions associated with FGFR-related craniosynostosis were clinically defined long before the molecular basis of this group of disorders was discovered. Apert syndrome can be diagnosed primarily based on the following clinical findings:
- Turribrachycephalic skull shape (cone-shaped or towering skull) which is observable clinically and can be confirmed by skull radiograph or head CT examination;
- Characteristic facial features including moderate-to-severe underdevelopment of the midface, bulging and wide-set eyes, beaked nose, underdeveloped jaw and shallow eye sockets;
- Variable hand and foot findings such as syndactyly of the fingers and toes and polydactyly.
While clinical findings are suggestive of Apert syndrome, molecular genetic testing can help to confirm the diagnosis. Fibroblast growth factor receptor type 2 (FGFR2) sequence analysis is highly sensitive for Apert syndrome. More than 98% of cases are caused by a specific mutation in the 7th exon of the gene encoding FGFR2. The remaining cases are due to another specific mutation in or near exon 9 of FGFR2.
GeneTests lists laboratories offering clinical genetic testing for this condition. Clinical genetic tests are ordered to help diagnose a person or family and to aid in decisions regarding medical care or reproductive issues. Talk to your health care provider or a genetic professional to learn more about your testing options.
- Nathaniel H Robin, Marni J Falk, Chad R Haldeman-Englert. FGFR-Related Craniosynostosis Syndromes. GeneReviews. June 7, 2011; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1455/#craniosynostosis.Management. Accessed 7/25/2014.
- Apert syndrome. Genetics Home Reference. February 2008; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/apert-syndrome. Accessed 7/1/2011.
- Lajeunie E. Apert syndrome. Orphanet. November 2005; http://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?lng=EN&Expert=87. Accessed 7/1/2011.
- Chen H. Apert Syndrome Workup. eMedicine. September 2009; http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/941723-workup. Accessed 7/1/2011.
- The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.