Other Names for this Disease
- Benign Essential Blepharospasm
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.
dystonia, a movement disorder in which muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. Benign essential blepharospasm occurs in both men and women, although it is especially common in middle-aged and elderly women. Most cases are treated with botulinum toxin injections. The exact cause of benign essential blepharospasm is unknown.Benign essential blepharospasm is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms of the eyelid muscles. It is a form of
Last updated: 7/22/2009
- NINDS Benign Essential Blepharospasm Information Page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). 2007; http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/blepharospasm/blepharospasm.htm. Accessed 7/22/2009.
- Hallett M. Blepharospasm, Benign Essential. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). 2007; http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdbdetail_abstract.html?disname=Blepharospasm%2C%20Benign%20Essential. Accessed 6/22/2009.
- Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Blepharospasm. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
- The National Eye Institute (NEI) was established by Congress in 1968 to protect and prolong the vision of the American people. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
- The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) collects and disseminates research information related to neurological disorders. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
- The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) is a federation of more than 130 nonprofit voluntary health organizations serving people with rare disorders. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
- Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
- The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
- Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Blepharospasm. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.