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Diseases

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia


Other Names for this Disease
  • BOOP
  • Constrictive bronchiolitis
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.

Your Question

I am inquiring about information in regards to BOOP. My husband was recently diagnosed with this rare disease. I am very concerned because I do not understand what is happening to his body. We are dumbfounded on why and how he contracted this disease. Please forward me any info you have to share.

Our Answer

We have identified the following information that we hope you find helpful. If you still have questions, please contact us.

What is bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)?

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a lung disease that causes inflammation in the small air tubes (bronchioles) and air sacs (alveoli).[1] BOOP typically develops in individuals between 40-60 years old; however the disorder may affect individuals of any age. The signs and symptoms of BOOP vary but often include shortness of breath, a dry cough, and fever.[2] BOOP can be caused by viral infections, various drugs, and other medical conditions. If the cause is known, the condition is called secondary BOOP. In many cases, the underlying cause of BOOP is unknown. These cases are called idiopathic BOOP or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia.[1] Treatment often includes corticosteroid medications.[3]
Last updated: 2/16/2016

What are the signs and symptoms of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)?

Signs and symptoms of BOOP vary. Some individuals with BOOP may have no apparent symptoms, while others may have severe respiratory distress as in acute, rapidly-progressive BOOP.[2] The most common signs and symptoms of BOOP include shortness of breath (dyspnea), dry cough, and fever.[1] Some people with BOOP develope a flu-like illness with cough, fever, fatigue, and weight loss.[2]
Last updated: 2/16/2016

What causes bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)?

BOOP may be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, inhalation of toxic gases, drugs, connective tissue disorders, radiation therapy, cocaine, inflammatory bowl disease, and HIV infection. In many cases, the underlying cause of BOOP is unknown. These cases are called idiopathic BOOP or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP).[1]
Last updated: 2/16/2016

How is bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) diagnosed?

BOOP is typically diagnosed by lung biopsy, although imaging tests and pulmonary function tests can also provide information for diagnosis.[1]
Last updated: 2/16/2016

How might bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) be treated?

Most cases of BOOP respond well to treatment with corticosteroids. If the condition is caused by a particular drug, stopping the drug can also improve a patient's condition.

Other medications reported in the medical literature to be beneficial for individuals on a case-by-case basis include: cyclophosphamide, erythromycin in the form of azithromycin, and Mycophenolate Mofetil (CellCept). More esearch is needed to determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of these potential treatment options for individuals with BOOP.

In rare cases, lung transplantation may be necessary for individuals with BOOP who do not respond to standard treatment options.[2]
Last updated: 2/16/2016

References
Other Names for this Disease
  • BOOP
  • Constrictive bronchiolitis
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.