Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration
- Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation
- Neuroaxonal dystrophy, late infantile
- Hallervorden-Spatz disease
Many individuals also experience limited speech and may have enough trouble with chewing and swallowing that a feeding tube becomes necessary. Two-thirds of children with classical PKAN develop peripheral (side) vision loss and night blindness due to retinal degeneration. Cognitive functioning varies from person to person and can range from high average to below average. Premature death does occur; however, live span is variable. With improvements in medical care, a greater number of affected individuals are living into adulthood.
All individuals with PKAN have an abnormal buildup of iron in certain areas of the brain. A particular change, called the eye-of-the-tiger sign, which indicates an accumulation of iron, is typically seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain in people with this disorder.
Features of the atypical form usually progress more slowly and appear within the first three decades of life. Signs and symptoms vary, but the progression in the atypical form is usually slower. Symptoms are usually marked by speech difficulty such repetition of words or phrases (palilalia), rapid speech (tachylalia), and poor articulation/slurring (dysarthria). Psychiatric symptoms such as behavioral problems, personality changes, and depression are more commonly observed. While movement problems are a common feature, it usually develops later. Loss of independent walking often occurs 15-40 years after the initial development of symptoms. Retinal degeneration is rare in the atypical form.
The Human Phenotype Ontology provides the following list of signs and symptoms for Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. If the information is available, the table below includes how often the symptom is seen in people with this condition. You can use the MedlinePlus Medical Dictionary to look up the definitions for these medical terms.
The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) has collected information on how often a sign or symptom occurs in a condition. Much of this information comes from Orphanet, a European rare disease database. The frequency of a sign or symptom is usually listed as a rough estimate of the percentage of patients who have that feature.
The frequency may also be listed as a fraction. The first number of the fraction is how many people had the symptom, and the second number is the total number of people who were examined in one study. For example, a frequency of 25/25 means that in a study of 25 people all patients were found to have that symptom. Because these frequencies are based on a specific study, the fractions may be different if another group of patients are examined.
Sometimes, no information on frequency is available. In these cases, the sign or symptom may be rare or common.
- Gregory, A. Polster, B J, and Hayflick, S J. Clinical and genetic delineation of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Journal of Medical Genetics. February 2009;
- Gregory A & Hayflick SJ. Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration. GeneReviews. March 2010; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1490/. Accessed 9/23/2011.
- Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Genetics Home Reference. October 2006; http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/pantothenate-kinase-associated-neurodegeneration. Accessed 9/23/2011.