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Diseases

Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD)

Hepatorenal syndrome


Other Names for this Disease
  • Hepato-renal syndrome
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Overview

Hepatorenal syndrome is a form of impaired kidney function that occurs in individuals with advanced chronic liver disease.[1][2] As many as 40% of individuals with cirrhosis and ascites will develop hepatorenal syndrome.[3] Symptoms may include fatigue, abdominal pain, and a general feeling of ill health (malaise).[1][2] There are two distinct types of hepatorenal syndrome. Type I progresses quickly (within days), leading to kidney failure. Individuals with type I typically have dramatically reduced urine output, edema, and jaundice, and often suffer from hepatic encephalopathy. Type II progresses more slowly, over weeks or months, and the symptoms are less severe. The cause of hepatorenal syndrome is unknown. A contributing factor seems to be a narrowing of the blood vessels that connect into the kidneys. This causes a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys, impairing their function.[1] In some cases, triggers or precipitating factors (infections, blood loss from the gastrointestinal tract, low blood pressure) are involved. Treatment is aimed at helping the liver work better and maintaining kidney function.[1][2] In many cases, a liver transplant is needed.[1][3] In some cases, individuals also need a kidney transplant.[1] 
Last updated: 7/13/2016

References

  1. Gonwa TA. Hepatorenal Syndrome. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). 2015; http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/hepatorenal-syndrome/.
  2. Lehrer JK, Zieve D. Hepatorenal syndrome. MedlinePlus. May 15, 2014; https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000489.htm.
  3. Devuni D. Hepatorenal Syndrome. Medscape Reference. January 13, 2016; http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/178208-overview.
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Basic Information

  • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
  • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

In Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Hepatorenal syndrome. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.
Other Names for this Disease
  • Hepato-renal syndrome
See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.