- Poland anomaly
- Poland syndactyly
- Poland sequence
- Unilateral defect of pectoralis muscle and syndactyly of the hand
- Poland's syndrome
Your QuestionWhat is Poland syndrome? Does this condition cause physiologic functional impairment?
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Questions on this page
- What is Poland syndrome?
- What are the signs and symptoms of Poland syndrome?
- Does Poland syndrome cause physiologic functional impairment?
- What causes Poland syndrome?
- Is Poland syndrome inherited?
- How many people have Poland syndrome?
- When is Poland syndrome typically first diagnosed?
- How might Poland syndrome be treated?
Signs and symptoms of Poland syndrome may be slight to severe. Some people with Poland syndrome have only absence of the breast tissue, while others may be missing all or part of the chest muscle and underlying ribs. Symptoms tend to occur on one side of the body. Below we have listed symptoms that can be found in this condition:
- Absence of some of the chest muscles.
- The end of the main chest muscle, where it attaches to the breastbone, is usually missing.
- The nipple, including the darkened area around it (areola) is underdeveloped or missing; in females, this may extend to the breast and underlying tissues.
- Abnormally short and slightly webbed fingers.
- Often, the armpit (axillary) hair is missing.
- The skin in the area is underdeveloped (hypoplastic) with a thinned subcutaneous fat layer.
- The upper rib cage can be underdeveloped or missing, Sometimes the shoulder blade or bones of the arm are also involved, Rarely, spine or kidney problems are present.
- An interruption of the embryonic blood supply of the arteries that lie under the collarbone (subclavian arteries). This could be caused by the forward growth of the ribs reducing the flow of blood.
- A malformation of the subclavian arteries causes a reduced amount of blood delivered to the developing tissues on one side of the body.
In the few reported familial cases, researchers suggest that the condition may have stemmed from an inherited susceptibility to events such as interruption of blood flow that may predispose a person to the anomaly (i.e., make a person more likely to develop the anomaly).
A current search of the available literature does not yield reliable statistics specific to the incidence or prevalence of Poland syndrome in the United States. If the estimated incidence of 1 in 30,000 were applied to the U.S. population size, over 10,000 people in the U.S. would have Poland syndrome. However, to our knowledge, data confirming these statistics in the U.S. are not currently available.
- Learning About Poland Anomaly. National Human Genome Research Institute. June 25, 2012; http://www.genome.gov/14514230. Accessed 9/2/2015.
- Wilhelmi BJ. Poland syndrome. Medscape Reference. September 15, 2014; http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1273664-overview. Accessed 9/2/2015.
- Fokin AA. Thoracic defects: cleft sternum and Poland syndrome. Thorac Surg Clin. November 2010; 20(4):575-582. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20974442. Accessed 9/2/2015.
- Borschel GH et al.,. Individualized implant-based reconstruction of Poland syndrome breast and soft tissue defomities. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 2007; 59(5):507-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17992143. Accessed 9/2/2015.
- Greydanus DE, Matytsina L, Gains M. Breast disorders in children and adolescents. Prim Care Clin Office Pract. Jun 2006; 33(2):455-502. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16713771. Accessed 9/2/2015.