- Poland anomaly
- Poland syndactyly
- Poland sequence
- Unilateral defect of pectoralis muscle and syndactyly of the hand
- Poland's syndrome
Your QuestionI recently gave birth to a beautiful baby girl. She was born without her right pectoral muscle and has been diagnosed with Poland syndrome. Upon researching this condition, I have learned that her right breast probably won't develop. While this may not be of concern right now, it will someday be important. Could you please provide me with information about this condition? I am interested in learning more about the causes, symptoms and treatment.
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- An interruption of the embryonic blood supply of the arteries that lie under the collarbone (subclavian arteries). This could be caused by the forward growth of the ribs reducing the flow of blood.
- A malformation of the subclavian arteries causes a reduced amount of blood delivered to the developing tissues on one side of the body.
Signs and symptoms of Poland syndrome may be slight to severe. Some people with Poland syndrome have only absence of the breast tissue, while others may be missing all or part of the chest muscle and underlying ribs. Symptoms tend to occur on one side of the body. Below we have listed symptoms that can be found in this condition:
- Absence of some of the chest muscles.
- The end of the main chest muscle, where it attaches to the breastbone, is usually missing.
- The nipple, including the darkened area around it (areola) is underdeveloped or missing; in females, this may extend to the breast and underlying tissues.
- Abnormally short and slightly webbed fingers.
- Often, the armpit (axillary) hair is missing.
- The skin in the area is underdeveloped (hypoplastic) with a thinned subcutaneous fat layer.
- The upper rib cage can be underdeveloped or missing, Sometimes the shoulder blade or bones of the arm are also involved, Rarely, spine or kidney problems are present.
- Learning About Poland Anomaly. National Human Genome Research Institute. June 25, 2012; http://www.genome.gov/14514230. Accessed 9/2/2015.
- Wilhelmi BJ. Poland syndrome. Medscape Reference. September 15, 2014; http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1273664-overview. Accessed 9/2/2015.
- Borschel GH et al.,. Individualized implant-based reconstruction of Poland syndrome breast and soft tissue defomities. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 2007; 59(5):507-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17992143. Accessed 9/2/2015.
- Greydanus DE, Matytsina L, Gains M. Breast disorders in children and adolescents. Prim Care Clin Office Pract. Jun 2006; 33(2):455-502. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16713771. Accessed 9/2/2015.