See Disclaimer regarding information on this site. Some links on this page may take you to organizations outside of the National Institutes of Health.
 There are two main types of thalassemia, alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia. Signs and symptoms vary but may include mild to severe anemia, paleness, fatigue, yellow discoloration of skin (jaundice), and bone problems. Beta thalassemia is caused by changes (mutations) in the HBB gene while alpha thalassemia is caused by mutations in the HBA1 and/or HBA2 genes. Both are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition but may include blood transfusions and/or folic acid supplements.Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that reduces the production of functional hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen). This causes a shortage of red blood cells and low levels of oxygen in the bloodstream, leading to a variety of health problems.
Last updated: 1/1/2015
- Thalassemia. MedlinePlus. February 2014; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000587.htm.
- Explore Thalassemias. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. July 2012; http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/thalassemia.
- Beta thalassemia. Genetics Home Reference. July 2009; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/beta-thalassemia. Accessed 12/5/2010.
- Alpha thalassemia. Genetics Home Reference. August 2009; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alpha-thalassemia. Accessed 1/23/2012.
- Hassan M Yaish, MD. Pediatric Thalassemia. Medscape Reference. April 2013; http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/958850-overview.
- You can obtain information on this topic from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC is recognized as the lead federal agency for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States.
- The Mayo Clinic Web site provides further information on Thalassemia.
- MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
- The Merck Manual provides information on this condition for patients and caregivers.
- The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has information on this topic. NHLBI is part of the National Institutes of Health and supports research, training, and education for the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, and blood diseases.
- The National Human Genome Research Institute's (NHGRI) website has an information page on this topic. NHGRI is part of the National Institutes of Health and supports research on the structure and function of the human genome and its role in health and disease.
- The Merck Manual for health care professionals provides information on Thalassemia.
- The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Thalassemia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.