- Tourette disorder
- Tourette's syndrome
- Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome
Tourette syndrome is a complex neurological disorder that is characterized by repetitive, sudden, uncontrolled (involuntary) movements and sounds (vocalizations) called tics. Tourette syndrome is named for Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who first described this disorder in 1885. A variety of genetic and environmental factors likely play a role in causing Tourette syndrome. A small number of people with Tourette syndrome have been found to have mutations involving the SLITRK1 gene. The syndrome is believed to be linked to problems in certain areas of the brain, and the chemical substances (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) that help nerve cells talk to one another. It is estimated that about 1% of the population has Tourette syndrome. Many people with very mild tics may not be aware of them and never seek medical help. Tourette syndrome is four times as likely to occur in boys as in girls. Although Tourette syndrome can be a chronic condition with symptoms lasting a lifetime, most people with the condition experience their worst symptoms in their early teens, with improvement occurring in the late teens and continuing into adulthood.
- Tourette syndrome. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). May 2013; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/tourette-syndrome.
- Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). April 16, 2014; http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tourette/detail_tourette.htm.
- Mary Robertson. The prevalence and epidemiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome Part 1: The epidemiological and prevalence studies. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. March 11, 2008;
- Campellone JV, Zieve D. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. MedlinePlus. February 20, 2014; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000733.htm.
- Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Tourette syndrome. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
- MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
- The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) collects and disseminates research information related to neurological disorders. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
- The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.
- Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Tourette syndrome. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.