HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis
Other Names for this Disease
- Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis
- Tropical spastic paraparesis (formerly)
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 The HTLV-1 virus can be transmitted from mother to child via breastfeeding or childbirth, from person to person through sexual contact and through blood contact, either by transfusion or by reuse of injection equipment. HTLV infection is not passed from person to person by coughing, sneezing, kissing, cuddling or daily social contact. Screening of donated blood for HTLV-1 has been done in the United States since 1988.HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic, progressive disease of the nervous system that affects less than 2 percent of people with HTLV-1 infection. Signs and symptoms vary but may include progressive weakness, stiff muscles, muscle spasms, backache, a 'weak' bladder, and constipation.
Last updated: 3/16/2011
- Tropical Spastic Paraparesis/HTLV-1–Associated Myelopathy. The Merck Manuals: Online Medical Library. August 2007; http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec06/ch093/ch093j.html. Accessed 3/17/2008.
- Tropical Spastic Paraparesis. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. May 9, 2007; http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tropical_spastic_paraparesis/tropical_spastic_paraparesis.htm. Accessed 3/17/2008.
- Szczypinska EM, Wallace MR, Wainscoat B, Salas C, Rich JD. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Viruses. eMedicine. 2009; http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/219285-overview. Accessed 11/12/2010.
- General Information--HTLV. Health Protection Agency. 2010; https://www.gov.uk/human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-htlv. Accessed 11/12/2010.
- The Human Protection Agency Web site provides information on HTLV infection. Click on Human Protection Agency to view this page.
- The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library provides information on this condition for patients and caregivers.
- The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) collects and disseminates research information related to neurological disorders. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
- The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.
- Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.
- Oh U, Jacobson S. Treatment of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: toward rational targeted therapy. Neurol Clin. 2008 Aug;26(3):781-97, ix-x.