Paroxysomal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia
Other Names for this Disease
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chorea, and/or writhing movements of the limb. Symptoms usually last between 1 and 4 hours. The movements may have no known trigger or be brought on by alcohol, caffeine, stress, fatigue, menses, or excitement. The familial form is caused by mutations in the PNKD gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Treatment might involve the use of antiseizure medications such as Clonazepam and avoidance of triggers.Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) is a disorder of the nervous system that causes periods of involuntary movement. Common symptoms include irregular, jerking or shaking movements, prolonged contraction of muscles,
Last updated: 6/21/2016
- Familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia. Genetics Home Reference. 2008; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=familialparoxysmalnonkinesigenicdyskinesia. Accessed 11/24/2008.
- Spacey S, Adams P. Familial Paroxysmal Nonkinesigenic Dyskinesia. GeneReviews. May 3, 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1221/.
- Dr Sian SPACEY. Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia. Orphanet. November 2013; http://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?lng=en&Expert=98810.
- Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Paroxysomal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
- The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
- Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Paroxysomal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.
- Unterberger I, Trinka E. Review: Diagnosis and Treatment of Paroxysmal Dyskinesias Revisited. Ther Adv Neurol Disorders. 2008;1(2):67-74.