Chiari malformation type 2
Other Names for this Disease
- Arnold-Chiari malformation
- Chiari type II malformation
- Chiari malformation type II
- Arnold Chiari malformation type II
Chiari malformation in which both the cerebellum and brain stem tissue extend into the foramen magnum (the hole at the skull base for passing of the spinal cord). This form is often accompanied by a type of spina bifida called myelomeningocele, and can also be accompanied by syringomyelia, hydrocephalus, or other abnormalities. Symptoms in infants may include stridor (wheezing sound); difficulty swallowing (dysphagia); feeding difficulties; hypotonia; and weak cry. Symptoms in children and/or adults may include headache; fatigue; loss of vision; tingling extremities; nausea; dysphagia; dizziness; muscle weakness; and ataxia. Adults and adolescents who previously had no symptoms may begin to have symptoms later in life. The exact cause of the condition is not known but it appears to be due to a developmental failure of the brain stem and upper spine. The term Arnold-Chiari malformation is technically specific to type II but may sometimes be used to describe other types of Chiari malformations.Chiari malformation type 2 (CM type II) is a type of
Last updated: 8/8/2011
- Chiari Malformation Fact Sheet. NINDS. June 7, 2011; http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/chiari/detail_chiari.htm. Accessed 8/8/2011.
- Arnold-Chiari Malformation. NORD. April 19, 2008; http://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/85/viewAbstract. Accessed 8/8/2011.
- Cassandra L. Kniffin. CHIARI MALFORMATION TYPE II. OMIM. August 9, 2006; http://omim.org/entry/207950. Accessed 8/8/2011.
- The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) collects and disseminates research information related to neurological disorders. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
- The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.
- Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
- The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
- Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
- PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Chiari malformation type 2. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.